In medical circles, blood in the urine above the physiological norm is called hematuria. It is not an independent disease. This is a sign of another pathological disease. The term comes from the Latin word. haematuria. Translated from the ancient Greek language means blood and urine.
Types of hematuria
Depending on the form of the disease, there are two types of the disease:
- Gross hematuria (macroscopic). Blood is visible to the naked eye. The color of the urine can vary from pink to bright red. The appearance of blood clots, impurities, pus.
- Microhematuria (microscopic). In the urine a small percentage of blood cells. Her color does not radically change. The change is detected only with laboratory tests or with the help of special tests.
Factors of hematuria are divided into:
- Postrenal - that is, associated with kidney diseases and their injuries.
- Extrarenal - due to other diseases.
Remember! If you detect even the slightest signs of urine excretion in the blood, you should immediately seek qualified help from a doctor for a thorough analysis and examination. Such a pathology can be lethal to human life!
Signs and manifestations
Pain in the bladder, canal can occur both after the process and directly during urination. It may be burning and not fading. She gives a reason and information for carrying out the analysis and an establishment of the differentiated diagnosis. It is necessary, since the causes of pain can be varied. There is a list in which there are up to 200 factors of such manifestations as blood in the urine. Most often these are infections, stones, malignant tumors and injuries. Let us give some examples.
- About pyelonephritis (inflammatory illness of the kidneys), nephroptosis (kidney prolapse) and the trauma occurred signal painful impulses in the lower back, in the side or under the scapula.
- With a significant loss of blood, general weakness, nausea, dizziness, pale complexion and constant thirst will tell about the intensive, one might say, total blood excretion in the urine.
- About the main signs of urolithiasis can be found through a large selection of dense formations (stones), itching, sand and blood clots in the urine.
- If the discharge is in the form of oblong clots of pink, yellowish and green hues, then they indicate a diseased liver, less often a gall bladder. Bilirubin will determine the hemolysis of red blood cells.
- Difficult urination signals significant bleeding with the process of secreting a large blood clot. It is also possible the exit with urine of a large stone, which blocks the entrance to the urethra.
- Significant clumps of blood in the urine indicate the likelihood of cancer, which will require surgery.
- When inflammation of the urea (cystitis), itching, cramps, less pus. Urination accompanied by burning sensation.
Symptoms in addition:
If the blood in the urine is not accompanied by other phenomena and signs, then this is a bad sign. Worse, only a malignant tumor can be. Additional symptoms:
- reduced physical activity
- general weakness, nausea,
- pale skin
- itching, burning, cracking,
- frequent urges
Consider the main diseases in which blood is excreted in the urine.
The manifestation of hematuria occurs in both women and men. Possible excretion of blood in the urine of the newborn due to congenital abnormalities. For inflammation in the kidneys, it is necessary to take both a blood test and a urine test. Symptoms of this disease manifest late. A change for the worse in the work of one kidney leads to the active phase of the second. She works for wear, for two. And to diagnose the pathology is difficult. The treatment is long lasting. In a neglected form, the only way to get rid of problems are operations.
- malfunction of the urethra,
- more frequent urine excretion, or urine outflow is completely disturbed,
- painful urination, itching, pus,
- severe pain in the back, lower back, with an undetermined location,
- swelling of the face
- decreased appetite
Biochemical analysis determines the degree of kidney damage in pyelonephritis. The presence of blood in the urine is the first sign. You need to know how the color of urine changes with pyelonephritis. Dark blood in the urine indicates an increased level of red blood cells and the presence of purulent contents. In laboratory tests also study the level of leukocytes and cylinders. Bilirubin indicates an inflammatory process. The appearance of acetone allows you to determine the degree of morbidity. The presence of protein, nitrite is a clear sign of a bacterial infection of the kidneys.
Frequent cases are renal colic. There is a pain syndrome either in the left or in the right side. It arises suddenly. Colic in the kidney area indicates the presence of urolithiasis. This, in turn, leads to damage to the pelvis, stretching the walls of the kidneys. Donating a urine test for pyelonephritis is a must. This is the only way to identify the true source of the disease and eliminate it in time. Many patients, having passed the analysis, try to carry out the decoding of the study independently. Calculate the number and level of indicators. Properly do it and assign the right treatment can only be highly qualified specialist!
Remember! Renal pathology must be treated on time. It requires emergency hospitalization, intensive care, and sometimes surgery.
A common cause of male hematuria is prostatic hyperplasia. Previously, such diseases were called prostate adenoma. In the process of this disease, small nodules are formed, compressing the urethra during growth. The change leads to a violation of the free release of the urinary canal. Blood in the urine with prostate goes in a modified form. It is milky, white, colorless, or yellow, like a healthy organism. But in a patient, it is often cloudy. Adenoma gives alkalinity to urine, in healthy people it is acidic. Bilirubin indicates an inflammatory process. Urgent treatment required.
Often in the early stages it is impossible to diagnose this source of hematuria. And this, in turn, leads to complications, tumors and cancer, which in 80% of cases require surgery.
Symptoms, as the determining factor to take the analysis:
- urination occurs rapidly, is intermittent, with the person experiencing severe pain,
- decrease in sexual desire, decline of potency, and, as a result, lack of sex,
- pain of urethra and perineum, cutting, itching.
- blood in the urine can be released involuntarily drop by drop,
- lower back pain
- dry mouth and thirst
With such symptoms, you must urgently contact the urologist. He will prescribe treatment. If the trip to the doctor is postponed, then this week the man will be advised to do so by others. The reason will be the smell of spontaneously released blood in the urine. Perhaps the wife will advise to do this because of the lack of sex.
In a laboratory study in such cases, the fundamental factors are the density of blood in the urine, the color and response of the urethra, as well as the amount of protein, leukocytes, bilirubin, acetone levels, leukocyte locality. All together gives a clear picture of the disease itself. A week before the tests can not drink alcohol, take uroseptiki and antibiotics. It is necessary to adhere to a healthy diet.
Hematuria may also develop for the following reasons:
- During strong physical exertion. In such cases, the kidneys do not have time to process metabolites - carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. The reason - increased and prolonged pressure on the organs.
- Anemia. Blood disorders lead to changes in the functions of the urethra. In urine there is blood, protein bodies, bilirubin in a high percentage.
- Tumor of the prostate gland. Hematuria is observed after surgery to remove cancer.
- Geppel-Landau syndrome. These are hereditary diseases in which the formations grow on organs such as the spine, testicles, and kidneys.
- Kidney stones, bladder, injury.
- Lack of certain enzymes in the body and frequent consumption of animal food.
- With the use of certain drugs.
Important! Treatment may not always be prescribed correctly. Therefore, repeated analysis of the origin of the disease and additional research are simply necessary! Adenoma can be a false diagnosis, and the main cause - a tumor of the kidneys, urethra or bladder.
Female hematuria often occurs during menstruation. Anemia - anemia is the cause of this. In cases of blood loss of more than 80 grams, there is considerable anemia, which can be extremely dangerous for health. Iron deficiency anemia may also develop. It provokes the release of the monthly with significant clots. They disappear after treating the disease. Only a qualified doctor can diagnose and prescribe therapy. Therefore, anemia is not a reason to begin to swallow tablets with a high concentration of iron.
Sometimes blood clots come out in a week from a woman who has just given birth. Why appear, and what could it be? Such symptoms may occur after cesarean section surgery. Perhaps the reason for poor uterine contraction. Not uncommon postpartum anemia, which leads to changes in the functions of the urogenital system.
A more dangerous symptom is blood in the urine during pregnancy. It gives a signal about the occurrence of inflammatory processes, developing infection. Less common causes are anemia and the occurrence of tumors. But the color of urine in pregnant women is not a fact of the disease. The color of the urine can change after eating colored foods — oranges, beets, carrots, and others. Often, future moms develop inflammations of the urethra, as the body during this period is susceptible to various kinds of infections and is very susceptible. Sometimes there is a burning, itching. With such factors, it is necessary to pass tests in order not to harm the developing fetus. The results of laboratory studies will establish the level of presence of leukocytes, erythrocytes, microbes and other infectious agents. Bilirubin, a gall pigment, will indicate how the liver and gallbladder work. Sometimes blood is excreted in the urine for a less serious reason — the pressure of the growing uterus on the urea.
Only a qualified doctor can diagnose and prescribe therapy.
Therefore, anemia is not a reason to begin to swallow tablets with a high concentration of iron.
Also, women may develop hematuria for the following reasons:
- Diseases of the genitourinary system.
- Cystitis, as a special type of flow of infectious changes in the kidneys.
- Acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
- Reception of oral contraceptives, in which the tone of the vessels of the small pelvis is reduced.
- Neoplasms are both benign and malignant.
- Injuries. Torn tissues, their damage leads to the appearance of blood in the urine.
- Anemia, hemophilia and other diseases associated with blood clotting in the body.
- Bilirubin as an indicator of liver failure.
- Surgical intervention - surgery.
Attention! In any case, at the slightest change in the color of the urine, each woman is obliged to seek advice from a medical institution.
Urine analysis gives a general idea of the health of the child. Children should be tested regularly. This reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases of the urethra, prevents pyelonephritis and other diseases. If laboratory tests are not carried out on time, it may be necessary to perform an operation at such an early age. Blood marks and pus in the child’s underwear are required to alert each parent. Also, should not be ignored complaints of itching. Blood in the urine of a child is the first sign of pathology in the body. What to look for?
- The smell of ammonia in children's urine indicates cystitis. Especially often found in girls. Under the influence of bacteria, urine decomposes and smells like rotten apples.
- With dehydration, the growth of sugar decreases the density of urine.
- About infections of the urethra shows protein. The detection of leukocytes also speaks of such a disease.
- Bilirubin indicates liver disease.
- Anemia is also one of the main causes of hematuria.
The normal color of urine in a newborn is colorless or light straw. If it changes, then it is an alarming signal about the course of the disease, which requires qualified treatment. The difficulty for parents is that infants cannot say that he has a pain. Therefore, mothers and fathers should be attentive to the facts of changes in the color of the urine of the newborn, so as not to start the process that requires surgery.
Symptoms of hematuria in children:
- pain in the side, stomach,
- temperature and fever,
- painful urination disorders,
- pink, red, brownish color of urine.
In such cases, a family history should also be collected. This will make it possible to determine the possible genetic predisposition to nephritis, kidney diseases and other types of diseases that are inherited.
Important! In case of at least one factor from the list of symptoms, an urgent appeal to a pediatrician to a medical institution is necessary. Laboratory studies will provide an opportunity to prescribe the correct treatment, and prevent the development of chronic diseases from an early age!
Diagnosis and treatment of hematuria
As already mentioned, blood in the urine is not a disease. This is a factor indicating the pathological changes in the human body. Severe diseases pose a significant threat to health at best, and to life at worst. Therefore, treatment should begin with establishing the causes and treatment of the underlying disease. At the same time, remember that isolated (asymptomatic) hematuria does not require medical intervention.
General rules of therapy.
- Radiography of the ureter and kidneys.
- Ultrasound examination - the introduction of a special substance to obtain an x-ray.
- CT scan.
- Cystoscopy to assess the degree of infection of the urethra and bladder.
- Gynecological examination for women.
- Conducting urine and blood tests, if necessary - additional laboratory tests.
- In cases of infectious diseases, the appointment of antibacterial drugs, such as cifazolin, antispasmodics, to relieve pain.
- The introduction of hemostatic and blood clotting drugs, if the cause of the incidence is anemia.
- Establishment of drainage, catheter for removal of urine from the kidney.
- In particularly difficult cases, surgery.
There are many methods of therapy. We reviewed the main of the entire list. Hematuria, if not treated, will lead to chronic stages of urolithiasis, polycystic, nephroptosis, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, malignant kidney and urinary tract tumors.
Know The rate of development of chronic pathologies in recent years has rapidly increased following reasons:
- bad ecological background,
- natural factors
- unhealthy food,
- wrong lifestyle,
- bad habits.
Remember! Late access to a doctor will launch powerful pathological processes. They will lead to the spread of major diseases, related complications that cannot be treated without surgery. Take care of yourself and your healthe!
Many causes provoke the appearance of hematuria in women. Most often the disease occurs:
- with infection and inflammation in the body,
- with tumors and cancer,
- after injuring the organs,
- during pregnancy.
Of all the causes, some of the most common and dangerous ones are particularly prominent.
Often urination with blood accompanies the formation of kidney stones. This is due to the fact that when it enters the urinary tract, the stones injure the tissues of the ureters. This process can occur with acute pain, pain, discomfort in the lumbar region.
In addition, hematuria occurs in renal colic, when the intralocal pressure rises and red bodies get into the venous bed. The examination reveals that uric acid levels are elevated in the urine.
The disease occurs during infectious processes in the urinary tract, after prolonged exposure to cold and overwork. It is detected by frequent urination, burning, and pain.
If there are similar symptoms in the presence of blood in the urine, you should immediately consult a doctor, because running cystitis can lead to a malfunction of the kidneys.
Often the presence of a small number of red cells in urea indicates benign or malignant neoplasms.Usually, only with microhematuria, it is possible to recognize hidden pathology, because many women, especially elderly people, feel well and are unaware of the impending danger. Without testing, you can only hear the complaints of patients for insomnia, excessive sweating and apathy.
Inflammation of the kidneys and other inflammatory diseases
When pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis in the urine blood clots appear. These diseases develop against the background of other pathologies of the urinary tract. The first disease can be treated on an outpatient basis, the second is more difficult - they fight it inpatient.
Attention. If the causes of blood in the urine of women are associated with pathological processes in the kidneys or bladder, immediate hospitalization and appropriate treatment is necessary.
Abnormalities in the work of the kidneys threaten to rupture the affected organs or provoke premature labor in women in the position.
To clarify the diagnosis, an ultrasound scan of the kidneys and bladder must be done, a general analysis of blood and urine should be done.
It is characterized by the presence of growths on the walls of the bladder or uterine tissues. In addition to the presence of blood in the urine, there may be a pulling sensation in the abdomen, pain, increased urination.
This disease can cause malignant tumors, infertility. It is important to recognize symptoms and apply therapy in time.
In some cases, with a strong blow or damage of another nature, urgent hospitalization is necessary, because if the internal organs do not withstand the pressure on them, a gap follows, which cannot be left without surgery.
The presence of red blood cells in the urine is detected by injury to the kidneys. If a blow to the lumbar region was received and a hematoma is noticeable at this place, there is no doubt that they are damaged. The kidneys may suffer during physical overload, unsuccessful rotation of the body.
If the bladder is damaged, urea is released in small portions or only blood is released. Injury of the organ occurs when hitting the lower abdomen. If the body was overcrowded, the probability of its rupture increases dramatically.
Many pregnant women observe the excretion of blood during urination. In the last periods this happens quite often and does not require special treatment, if the kidneys do not have abnormalities. When the child is born, the internal organs are compressed, sometimes microcracks form on the tissues of the urinary tract. This phenomenon does not threaten the life of the mother and child, except in cases with abundant loss of red bodies, when hemostatic agents are necessary.
If a woman takes oral contraceptives, sometimes the viscosity of the blood changes and the condition of the vessels deteriorates, which leads to the appearance of red cells in urea. If there is a suspicion that the drug is not suitable and is the cause of the disease, you need to clarify the diagnosis with the urologist, and later with the gynecologist to choose another medicine. Usually, no additional cure is required.
Long-term use of anticoagulants
The use of means for regulating the viscosity of the blood sometimes provokes bleeding. In this case, it is necessary to increase the density of the blood liquid.
It is important to follow the dosage and take medications course. If a girl drinks anticoagulants uncontrollably or exceeds the prescribed dose, urination occurs with blood patches. Bleeding from the nose, in the uterus, in the articular cavities, which forms visible hematomas, may begin.
Error while collecting tests
Sometimes when collecting tests there are misunderstandings associated with the wrong approach to the procedure. They often mislead professionals, so it’s important to follow simple rules:
- be tested in a sterile container
- collecting urine in the morning, donating it after two hours is not worth it,
- before urine collection, wash thoroughly during menstruation,
- for women with infectious diseases, it is necessary to insert a tampon into the vagina before picking.
When using some products, urine can become unnatural shades that scare women, and they immediately go to the doctor, it is important to remember.
When redness is detected in the urine, it is better to immediately consult a doctor and not to begin self-treatment with the help of questionable means.
Treatment of blood in the urine of women
It is important to establish the causes and treatment appropriately assigned to them. In the event that, for example, with varicose veins, it was necessary to lower the blood density, now it is worth considering how to increase it.
Since the cause of hematuria can be different diseases, it is important to understand why blood cells in the urine exceed the norm. To start therapy, you need to establish the correct diagnosis. This is only possible with blood and urine tests, ultrasound, biopsy.
With these procedures, it can be revealed that uric acid is lowered; this may indicate kidney damage, which requires treatment directed to this organ. If the kidneys are impaired, but the structure of the organs is normal, B vitamins are applied, iron is prescribed. At rupture of the body, surgical intervention is performed.
In case of violations in the work of the ureter and urethra, antispasmodics and physiotherapy are prescribed.
If the disease passes without pain, it still does not indicate the possibility of treatment at home. But sometimes it is impossible to consult a doctor, then proven popular methods of treatment come to the rescue. Used a decoction of the bark of Barberry, which has a diuretic effect.
The causes of an elderly woman may differ from those that led to the hematuria of a young girl, so do not rely on well-known facts about this disease.
With continued blood flow, it is better to consult a doctor, even if there is no pain, and sometimes changing the color of the urine is not scary. This will help get rid of hematuria, prevent serious ailments, which were the root cause of the color change of the excreted fluid.
Defeating severe kidney disease is possible!
If the following symptoms are familiar to you firsthand:
- persistent back pain
- difficulty urinating,
- blood pressure disorder.
The only way is surgery? Wait and do not act by radical methods. Cure the disease is possible! Follow the link and find out how the Specialist recommends treatment.
Infectious and inflammatory diseases
The inflammatory process is accompanied by hemodynamic disorders in the affected area. A venous stasis appears, the blood cells that diffuse through the intact vascular wall. If the disease is infectious in nature, then the pathogen or its toxins damage the urinary tract epithelium, contributing to hematuria. Micro hematuria is observed, as a rule, in diseases such as cystitis, pyelonephritis.
The most frequent causative agent of diseases of the urinary system is E. coli. This microorganism is conditionally pathogenic. Normally, it colonizes the intestine, but if the rules of hygiene are violated, the pathogen can get into the bladder or renal pelvis in an ascending way. Most often women are ill, as they have a short and wide urethra.
The hemorrhagic form of cystitis is accompanied by severe hematuria. Usually, the disease proceeds with pain, cutting with urination and symptoms of general intoxication.
For the differential diagnosis of hematuria important is the portion of urine, in which red blood cells appear.
All genitourinary pathogens are divided into 2 groups: specific and non-specific. The latter include E. coli, streptococci and staphylococci. Specific pathogens are mycobacterium tuberculosis and pale treponema (syphilis). This flora is suspected when blood in the urine of women without pain persists for a long time, and is also accompanied by persistent subfebrile fever (temperature between 37–38 ºC).
Oncopathology of the urogenital tract
Oncourology is a section of medical science that studies tumors of the urogenital tract, as well as developing a scheme for their effective treatment. In practice, cancer of the parenchyma of the kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, and pelvis are relatively common. Kidney neoplasms are the reason why the blood in the urine in women is not accompanied by pain and dysuria. Only when the tumor stretches the fibrous membrane of an organ does colic appear.
Malignant neoplasms, regardless of the type of growth, damage the vessel wall. Because of this, hematuria appears. Patients also notice the appearance of blood clots during urination.
Painless hematuria in elderly patients is alarming doctors, as it is characteristic of tumors of the bladder. The risk group also includes smokers. The combustion products of tobacco (smoke, tar) contain a large amount of substances with carcinogenic activity. These include heavy metals, free radicals, polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates (PAHs), nitrosamines, protein pyrolysates, and others.
Glomerulonephritis is a disease of the kidneys, characterized by damage to the glomeruli. It is one of the common causes of hematuria in women and men. Pathology has a heterogeneous clinic. Allocate the form of isolated hematuria. However, proteinuria (urine protein loss) most often joins it. Urine of patients has the color of "meat slop". Glomerulonephritis can be acute, subacute, or chronic. The latter inevitably leads to the development of renal failure.
There are 5 forms of chronic glomerulonephritis:
- nephrotic (proteinuria more than 3.5 g per day, hypoproteinemia, dysproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, edema),
- combined: a combination of nephrotic and hypertensive variants,
- hematuric (Berger disease),
- urinary (changes in urine analysis only).
Chronic glomerulonephritis is characterized by a long course. The terminal stage of the disease develops by the 15–20 year of the disease. Rapid development is characteristic of the rapidly progressive malignant pathology.
Hematuria is a common symptom of nephrolithiasis. The stone can injure the epithelium of the pelvis, causing bleeding. Large coral calculus has sharp edges that damage the epithelium, causing pronounced hematuria.
The disease has a heterogeneous etiology. The primary forms of the disease are associated with impaired kidney structure. Secondary - with the influence of pathogenic factors. Of particular danger is β-hemolytic streptococcus group A, which confirms the incidence of glomerulonephritis after suffering streptococcal quinsy.
Hematuria in pregnant women
The causes of blood in the urine of women during pregnancy may be different. This symptom is alarming both the patient and the obstetrician-gynecologist. In most cases, hematuria in pregnant women is not a consequence of the pathological process. However, to exclude a serious disease, they conduct a full examination.
Hematuria during pregnancy is most often idiopathic. It is assumed that hormonal changes, as well as compression by the increasing uterus of the renal pelvis, lead to such changes. Blood loss from urine passes after childbirth. If hematuria persists in the postpartum period, it is associated with organic changes in the kidneys or urinary tract.
Which doctor to contact
The most important thing in the diagnosis of most diseases is a thorough collection of complaints and anamnesis. Only on the basis of subjective signs can the cause of blood in the urine be assumed. For example, hematuria combined with polyuria, thirst or itching of the skin indicates diabetic nephropathy.
If blood appears in the urine, you should contact a general practitioner who will refer you to a specialist for further diagnosis. The urologist and the nephrologist deal with diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. The latter specializes in pathologies of the renal parenchyma.
To identify hematuria, a clinical analysis of urine is performed. This study allows to establish the fact of loss of red blood cells, but does not provide information about the true cause of blood in the urine of women.
Algorithm for diagnosis of diseases of the urogenital tract:
- Extended clinical analysis of urine.
- Bacterial urine culture.
- Urine analysis according to Zimnitsky.
- Urine analysis according to Nechyporenko.
- Daily proteinuria.
- Clinical blood test.
- Biochemical study of blood.
- Ultrasound examination of the kidneys and bladder.
- Excretory urography.
- Biopsy of the kidney.
Having understood that it is blood in the urine of women, and the true causes of its appearance, the doctor proceeds to treatment. Surgical pathology often requires surgery, therapeutic - adequate medical therapy. The kidneys are a very sensitive organ. In order to preserve their function, it is important to diagnose the disease in a timely manner and begin treatment.
We offer for viewing a video on the topic of the article.
General information and classification
Hematuria is a common disorder that is diagnosed when a woman’s blood appears in the urine in a volume that exceeds the allowable amount. In modern medicine, it is considered that this phenomenon is considered as one of the most characteristic of kidney diseases and urinary system symptoms.
Attention! Hematuria cannot be considered as a symptom of any particular disease. In most cases, such a sign is uncharacteristic and can be traced with various lesions. In some cases, these diseases are considered as urgent, requiring immediate medical care.
It is worth noting that in insignificant amounts of blood is present in the urine of even a healthy person. In the normal state, the number of red blood cells should not exceed 2 in sight.
If hematuria is mild, it can be detected only during a laboratory examination, such a lesion is called microhematuria. Such a violation is not considered as dangerous. The reason for its occurrence may consist in fairly active physical exertion. Rest is necessary to eliminate such pathology.
Gross hematuria can be considered as a symptom of a serious dysfunction of the body, indicating the development of dangerous diseases.
To eliminate such a violation, it is necessary to determine the cause of it provoked:
Various factors can provoke the appearance of lesions of various forms.
How to pass a urine test?
To identify traces of blood in the urine most often use urine analysis according to Nechyporenko.
The basic instruction to ensure that no results are distorted may look like this:
- It is important to avoid physical exertion for 2 days before the day of analysis,
- one day prior to the study exclude spicy, fatty, fried, salty and foods that change the color of urine from the diet,
- refusal to drink alcohol,
- minimizing protein foods in the diet,
- it is important to collect the morning urine,
- the toilet of the genitals should be provided before the urine is collected,
- sterile utensils are used to collect and transport urine.
Attention! If the date of analysis coincides with menstrual bleeding, it is better to refuse to take a test. There is a possibility of distortion of the results.
Features of treatment
The tactics of treatment for the appearance of blood in the urine of a woman is determined individually. If hematuria is the result of moving the calculus along the urinary tract, an operation is performed.
In the case when pyelonephritis is the cause, treatment requires hospitalization of the patient, hemodialysis is recommended to simplify the kidney function.
When hematuria occurs during pregnancy, the main task of a specialist is to identify the causes of its provoking. This symptom often indicates premature detachment of the placenta.
The condition is dangerous and may pose a threat to the life of the fetus and mother. The physician must decide on the need for premature delivery.
When an infectious disease occurs, the doctor may use antibacterial agents. If the damage was received as a result of therapeutic or diagnostic measures, the recovery process proceeds naturally.
- frequent urination, which causes discomfort and significantly changes the quality of life,
- when urinating a sharp pain is felt,
- in the area of the perineum or in the lower part of the abdominal cavity there is a feeling of "bloating",
- in the lumbar region there is both one-sided and two-sided,
- night-time cramps
- discharge from the vagina or urethra of a purulent or slimy nature may occur, which are accompanied by itching and discomfort,
- increased body temperature
- signs of intoxication (fatigue, headaches, apathetic condition),
- during intercourse pain and discomfort are possible,
- increased night sweats, weakness and weight loss. When gross hematuria is not always red blood cells are clearly visible in the urine. The color of the urine remains the same, but blood clots also appear. It is possible to establish gross hematuria according to the results of laboratory studies, which will show a high content of red blood cells (more than 5 ml per 100 ml of urine). При меньшем содержании речь идет о микрогематурии.
Выделяется кровь на разных стадиях мочеиспускания у женщин. When the erythrocytes are released in the first seconds of urination, they diagnose initial hematuria, in the middle of the process - total, in the end - final.
To identify such features is possible with the help of special studies that help to establish the cause of the development of the disease. The initial type of hematuria speaks of violations of the urethra, the final - of the violation of the bladder, total - with violations of the kidneys and ureter.
If blood formations in the form of clots, most likely, we are talking about vascular damage. With elongated and thin blood formations, bleeding in the kidneys, pelvis and ureters is possible. This form of clots due to blood clotting when moving along the urinary tract.
Infection can cause inflammatory processes in various organs of the urinary system. If the focus of inflammation is in the kidneys (pyelonephritis), the patient complains of pain from the side of the lesion, increased body temperature, change in the color of urine.
Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder, characterized by rapid deurination, in the process of urination there is a sharp pain and burning sensation, the amount of urine released is small. In urethritis, inflammation of the urinary canal, discharge from the lumen is formed.
Urine with blood in women with ICD is released as a result of the movement of stones and sand through the urethra, which during movement damages the mucous membrane.
In ICD, a characteristic symptom is renal colic, in which the woman experiences unbearable pain. Possible pain of less intensity of the whining character in the lumbar region.
Injury of the urinary system
During cystoscopy, urethroscopy and catheterization, bladder and urinary tract injuries are possible. In such cases, hematuria is short-lived.
Such injuries as crush and ruptures of the urinary organs are of great danger. In such cases, the patient requires urgent medical care, in particular, surgery.
With the appearance of blood in the urine of a woman, the supervising doctor should conduct examinations for oncological entities. Such studies are particularly relevant if the woman is older than middle age, in the history of which there are no chronic diseases of the genitourinary system.
With the development of oncological formations, hematuria may be the only symptom, in the early stages the process is not accompanied by pain.
Therefore, women after 40 years should undergo periodic preventive examinations.
With the development of cancer, the symptoms are non-specific and may go unnoticed. Women complain of fatigue, weight loss and excessive sweating. The first painful sensations appear in the process of tumor growth.
Action of anticoagulants
Taking medications that contribute to blood thinning may cause increased bleeding. Most often, this reaction is the result of uncontrolled intake of these drugs, exceeding the prescribed dosage.
This may cause the appearance of blood in the urine, the discharge of bloody nature from the uterus, nose and gastrointestinal tract. Large bruises form on the skin surface, and blood accumulates in the pleural cavity and joints.
Principle of diagnosis
To diagnose manifestations such as hematuria, you need to conduct a series of surveys:
- General analysis (blood, urine). Needed to identify the inflammatory process, assess the content of components.
- Three-staged urinalysis. Allows you to determine the cause of hematuria.
- Biochemical analysis (blood, urine). To determine the level of protein, urea, creatine, etc.
- Urine analysis according to Nechyporenko. This method allows you to see a detailed picture, shows the concentration of red blood cells, cylinders and leukocytes in the urine.
- Bacterial urine analysis. It is used in case of suspected infectious diseases, allows to determine the type of pathogen.
- X-ray of the kidneys and urinary system.
- Ultrasound of the urinary organs. Determines tumors, stones, etc.
- Urethroscopy and cystoscopy. Used for a detailed study of organs, cessation of hemorrhage and biopsy.
- MRI and CT.
Mandatory research in hematuria is a urinalysis. With the wrong collection of biomaterial results are unreliable.
Therefore, in the process of collecting urine should follow certain rules:
- take a sterile urine collection container
- insert a tampon into the vagina before urination,
- drain a small amount of urine into the toilet, then collect into a container,
- tightly close the container and take it to the laboratory for one and a half hours.
With the appearance of blood in the urine of a woman, therapy is carried out under the close supervision of a physician.
The choice of treatment is carried out after passing the laboratory tests and diagnosis. Hematuria is just a symptom of a disease, so the cause must be treated.
In the treatment of infectious diseases using antibacterial and antimicrobial agents. When organs are injured as a result of catheterization or cystoscopy, the healing process proceeds spontaneously.
In some cases, they resort to surgical intervention (large stones, organ ruptures, oncological formations, endometriosis). Pregnant women with hematuria are observed with particular attention. With the appearance of even small blood discharge, you must immediately determine it in the hospital.