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FEATURES OF THE CHEST CELL

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The structure of the human thorax is due to its main function - protection from damage to vital organs and arteries. The protective framework has several components: ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, joints, ligamentous apparatus, muscles, and diaphragm. The chest has the shape of an irregular truncated cone, as it is flattened in the anteroposterior position, which is due to the erect position of the person.

The base of the sides of the chest

The sternum and joints, which attach the ends of the ribs to it, form the front of the skeleton, and also include the pectoral muscles, ligaments and the diaphragm. The back wall is formed by the thoracic vertebrae (in the amount of 12 pieces) and by the posterior end of the ribs attached to the thoracic vertebrae.

The side walls (medial and lateral) are represented directly by the ribs. With existing ligaments and muscles, providing additional rigidity and elasticity of the natural frame of the body. The structure of the human thorax was greatly influenced by evolutionary processes, in particular, upright walking. As a consequence, the shape of the frame is flattened.

Types of chest cells

Depending on the form, there are:

  • Normostenic chest - has the shape of a truncated cone, mild over-and subclavian fossa.
  • Hypersthenic - well-developed musculature of the thoracic, in form similar to the cylinder, that is, the diameter of the anteroposterior and lateral positions are almost the same.
  • Asthenic - has a small diameter and elongated shape, clavicle, supra- and subclavian fossae strongly pronounced.

The structure of the human chest in pathological processes may undergo changes in its shape. This is influenced by some diseases or traumas. The main reason for the change in the shape of the chest is the pathological deformation processes occurring in the spine.

Chest deformation has a negative impact on the functioning of internal organs, can cause their deformation and disturbances in the rhythm of work.

Features of edges in a protective frame

The strongest and largest ribs are in the upper chest, their number is seven. They are attached to the sternum with bone joints. The next three ribs have cartilage attachment, and the last two do not attach to the sternum, but connect only to the body of the last two thoracic vertebrae, therefore, they are called floating ribs.

The structure of the human thorax in newborns has some differences, since their bone tissue is not fully formed, and the natural skeleton is represented by cartilage tissue, which ossifies with age.

The skeleton volume increases with the age of the child, which is why it is necessary to regularly monitor the condition of the posture and the spine, which will prevent deformation of the chest and, accordingly, prevent pathologies in the work of internal organs such as the heart, lungs, liver and esophagus.

Frame motion

Despite the fact that the bone frame does not have the ability to move, the rib cage is subject to certain movements. Insignificant movements are carried out due to breathing, the volume of the chest increases on inhalation, and decreases on exhalation due to the mobility and elasticity of the cartilaginous joints of the ribs with the vertebrae and sternum.

When breathing, not only the total volume of the chest is changed, but also the intercostal spaces, which increase in inspiration, and narrow on exhalation. Such processes provides the anatomical structure of the human chest.

Age changes

In newborns, the shape of the chest is less oblate, that is, the sagittal and frontal diameters are almost the same. The location of the ends and the heads of the ribs occurs on the same level, but with age, when the infant breathing begins to predominate, the position of the sternum changes. Its upper margin descends to the level of the 3-4th thoracic vertebra.

Older people more often suffer from problems with the respiratory system due to a reduction in the amplitude of chest movement. This is due to a decrease in the elasticity of cartilage compounds, which changes the structure of the human thorax. Internal organs are also deformed and cannot fully function.

Chest features

Differences in the forms of the chest is also due to sexual characteristics. The differences are influenced by the peculiarities of breathing - in men, breathing is performed using the diaphragm and is abdominal, and in women breathing is chest. Visually, the structure of the human chest can be considered in more detail. The male and female skeleton patterns indicate the presence of differences depending on sexual characteristics.

Since men have a larger frame, their ribs are distinguished by a sharp bend, but there are practically no spiral curls on the ribs. Women, on the contrary, are distinguished by the presence of a pronounced spiral twisting of the lateral parts of the chest (ribs), which is why the diaphragm of women is less involved in the breathing process, and the large load falls on the chest, that is, the chest type of respiration is predominant.

The structure of the human chest, the photo of which is presented above, indicates obvious differences in the skeleton of men and women.

Chest injuries

Chest injuries Chest injuries can be open and closed, in the form of bruises, tremors or compression, and they occur as a result of injuries and wounds. There is the following classification of chest injuries: I non-penetrating injuries (through and

Movement of the chest.

Movement of the chest. During full and deep breathing that accompanies any rapid movement, it is best to keep your hands on your belt, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Air should enter the lungs and leave them solely due to expansion and lowering

14. Massage of the chest

14. Chest Massage Perform stroking with several fingers in the ribs area, directing movements from the middle of the chest to its lateral surfaces. Carefully avoid pressing down

3.19. INJURY OF THE BREAST CELL

3.19. INJURY OF THE BREAST CELL The chest injuries are divided into closed and open. The principal difference is that in open injury the pleura (the lining of the lungs) is directly damaged. The main causes of closed injuries are blows, falls, traffic

Chest massage

Massage of the chest All movements during the massaging of the chest are made in the direction from the bottom up. Basic techniques from the rubbing group:? rectilinear rubbing with a small pad and thumb knob? circular rubbing with the pad of one large

Chest contusion

Chest contusion How to identify? * External damage (abrasions, bruises). * Pain when breathing. * Pain when changing position. * Soreness is NOT LOCAL. What should I do? 1. Rest. Tight bandaging. Chill in place of injury. Give painkillers OR a little

Chest injury

Injury of the chest. In case of traumatic injury of the chest, the lung tissue, lung vessels, pain in the chest, a cough with bloody sputum appear. Blood clots may occur in acute left ventricular.

Chest x-ray

Chest X-ray Method: one of the most common X-ray studies. It is used to diagnose pathological changes in the chest, chest cavity organs and nearby anatomical structures. Performed

Chest injuries

Chest x-ray

Chest X-ray Method: one of the most common X-ray studies. It is used to diagnose pathological changes in the chest, chest cavity organs and nearby anatomical structures. Performed

Chest massage

Massage of the chest All movements during the massaging of the chest are made in the direction from the bottom up. Basic techniques from the rubbing group:? rectilinear rubbing with a small pad and thumb knob? circular rubbing with the pad of one large

Chest contusion

Chest contusion How to identify? * External damage (abrasions, bruises). * Pain when breathing. * Pain when changing position. * Soreness is NOT LOCAL. What should I do? 1. Rest. Tight bandaging. Chill in place of injury. Give painkillers OR a little

Chest injury

Injury of the chest. In case of traumatic injury of the chest, the lung tissue, lung vessels, pain in the chest, a cough with bloody sputum appear. Blood clots may occur in acute left ventricular.

Chest x-ray

Chest X-ray Method: one of the most common X-ray studies. It is used to diagnose pathological changes in the chest, chest cavity organs and nearby anatomical structures. Performed

Chest injuries

Chest x-ray

Chest X-ray Method: one of the most common X-ray studies. It is used to diagnose pathological changes in the chest, chest cavity organs and nearby anatomical structures. Performed

Chest massage

Chest Massage On the rib cage, the sterno-rib joints and the surface of the sternum are treated in the front. Produce: 1. Short movements along the sterno-costal joints to the jugular notch. Movement made in the direction of the sternum. Enveloping movement on the same

Specific structure of the chest in children

When a baby is born, its chest has a barrel-shaped or conical shape. The ribs are located almost horizontally and perpendicularly attached to the spine. In this case, only the middle part of each rib is folded with bone tissue: the ends closer to the sternum and the spine, as well as the sternum itself, consist of cartilage.

At the age of about one year, the shape of the chest in children begins to change. The sternum is slightly lowered, the ribs assume an oblique position, the diaphragm and organs of the abdominal cavity move downwards. The bones are actively strengthened and grow. Gradually, the chest becomes flatter in the anterior-posterior direction (oval in cross section). The period of rapid growth of the upper part of the skeleton in girls begins at 11, and in boys at 12 years. By the age of 18, the human thorax is considered fully formed.

The structural features of the baby’s skeleton are reflected in the work of the lungs and the heart. On a chest x-ray of a child, it is clear that the ribs are constantly in the position characteristic of inspiration. That is why the mobility of the bones of the breast in children is much less than in adults. Light crumbs in the first year of life increase predominantly down. Breath in babies is diaphragmatic and very frequent. This feature, in combination with the relative weakness of the pectoral muscles, often becomes the cause of the increased susceptibility of young children to colds and the severe course of such ailments.

Pathology of the development of the chest in children

Chest deformities in children are congenital and acquired. As a rule, the former have genetic causes, and the occurrence of the latter is the result of diseases (bone tuberculosis, rickets, scoliosis, chronic respiratory ailments). The most common deformities of the thoracic skeleton are:

  • Funnel-shaped (the sternum and the adjacent parts of the ribs are pressed inward),
  • Keel-shaped (sternum bulges, ribs attached to it perpendicularly),
  • Flat chest
  • Cleft of the sternum,
  • Barrel chest,
  • Scaphoid chest.

Boys suffer from congenital forms of chest deformity about 4 times more often than girls, and pathologies of this type in them take more pronounced forms. Virtually all such bone lesions increase with age: often in 2–3 years, the funnel chest can be seen only on the chest x-ray of a child, but by the age of 6–7 years, the defect already becomes obvious.

Deformations of the chest bones negatively affect the work of the lungs and heart. Children suffering from such lesions, as a rule, are physically much weaker than their peers, they are very susceptible to seasonal colds, have psychological problems, and sometimes lag behind in intellectual development. Fortunately, such ailments are successfully treated. Therefore, parents, noticing such abnormalities in the baby, should immediately contact the specialists, and not be afraid to follow their advice on the surgical treatment method, since this method today is the most effective in correcting abnormalities in the development of the chest in children.

Causes and degrees

The chest is a musculoskeletal skeleton located in the upper half of the body. It serves as a defense for the heart, lungs, vessels. When anomalies are deformed cartilage of the costal arches with the sternum.

In congenital pathology, the defect develops even at the embryonic level: the right and left rudimentary cartilages of the sternum are incorrectly connected, or there is a flaw in the form of cleft between their upper and lower sections. A cleft can be so large that there is a risk of pericardial protrusion with congenital heart defects.

With congenital defects in the pectoral bone structures, about 4% of newborns are born. Bone and cartilaginous defects reduce the protective and skeletal function, a pronounced cosmetic defect causes psychological disorders in babies. The deformation of the chest in children is accompanied by a disorder of the circulatory system, and children with this pathology are too asthenic, physically significantly lagging behind healthy peers.

According to the degree of change of structures, the child’s condition is assessed as:

  • compensated
  • subcompensated
  • decompensated.

The degree of compensation depends on the characteristics of the organism, the rate of growth of bone structures, the degree of stress, other existing diseases.

Localization of changes in bone structures is:

  • on the front surface
  • on the back surface
  • on the side surface.

If a child is born with dysplastic (congenital) anomalies, the acquired causes of pathology with deformity can develop against the background of chronic lung diseases, tuberculosis, rickets, scoliosis, injuries, burns.

Funnel structure

Congenital developmental anomaly is associated with the underdevelopment of a whole complex of structures: the spine, ribs, sternum, shoulder blades, muscles in the chest. The most severe anomalies of the bone structures appear on the anterior surface of the chest - this is a funnel-shaped, flat, keeled chest deformity in children.

Congenital funnel deformity (WDGK) is also called the "shoemaker's chest." With this congenital pathology, the costal cartilages are so inferior that they give a depression in the middle and lower third of the chest. This congenital anomaly ranks first in number - about 90% of cases.

External signs, which determine the funnel deformity pathology:

  • in the chest form with the expansion in the transverse direction,
  • signs of kyphosis with lateral curvatures.

As the child grows up, this type of deformation becomes more pronounced.

The rib bones grow and push the sternum inside. The sternum bone becomes concave, is shifted to the left side and expands the heart along with large vessels.

This kind of vice gives a decrease in the volume of the chest cavity.

Curved spine and irregular sunken shape of the chest displaces the heart, lungs.

Changes in arterial and venous pressure. Children with a funnel chest suffer from multiple malformations, which is often caused by an aggravated family history.

Symptoms that develop against the background of this type of deformity:

  • physical development lag,
  • vegetative disorders
  • chronic colds.

Usually, by three years of the child’s life, the degree of deformation reaches its peak and then becomes fixed.

There are 3 degrees of severity by offset:

  • at first, the depth of displacement is about 2 cm,
  • on the second - about 4 cm,
  • on the third - more than 4 cm.

Keel scorch

The keel-shaped anomaly is called "chicken breast." This is such a deformation, when the sternum is convex, protrudes forward. Anteroposterior dimensions increased.

The keel-shaped anomaly occurs due to overgrown rib cartilage of the fifth and seventh ribs. Грудинная кость выступает вперед, углы реберных дуг находятся по отношению к ней под острым углом (килевидная форма). Чаще всего эта форма аномалии врожденная, но встречаются случаи осложненных форм рахита, костного туберкулеза.

Килевидное разрастание наблюдается у детей с 3 и до 5 лет. С ростом деформация становится более заметной. Видоизменяется сердце. Это так называемый синдром «висячего сердца». In rare cases, keeled anomaly is accompanied by pathology of the pulmonary and cardiac structures. In children, this is most often a cosmetic defect, and doctors do not observe any abnormalities. By adolescence and older, the keeled abnormality of the chest can cause functional impairment associated with a significant decrease in lung volume. The coefficient of oxygen consumption is significantly reduced. Patients with keel-shaped deformities of the chest are worried about shortness of breath. They complain of fatigue, palpitations after minor physical exertion.

Surgical correction is prescribed only when the doctor objectively determines that there are irregularities in the functioning of the internal organs.

Other congenital malformations

Flat chest is considered a feature physique. In this case, the anteroposterior dimensions of the chest are reduced, but there are no disturbances in the functioning of the internal organs. This option is not considered a pathological condition, and therapy is not shown here.

Congenital deformities also include a curved sternum, congenital cleft of the sternum, Poland syndrome.

Curved sternum (Currarian-Silverman syndrome) is the most rare type of deformity of the thoracic bone structures. It is a protruding furrow along the upper third of the chest: a ossified sternum with overgrown cartilages of the right and left costal arches form a furrow. With this type of deformation, the rest of the thoracic bone structures usually look.

This deformation does not pose a threat to the patient's health and is only a cosmetic defect.

Congenital cleft in the sternum is an anomaly in which the sternum is completely or partially split. It is considered a serious and dangerous malformation. In addition to a cosmetic defect, the depression on the front surface of the chest does not protect the heart with the great vessels. Respiratory excursion of the chest with such a congenital defect lags behind the age norm by 4 times. Decompensation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems increases in a short period of time.

To correct the congenital cleft of the breast, surgery is indicated.

Diagnostics, therapeutic methods

The specialist determines the diagnostic picture of the development of deformity by external signs. As an instrumental diagnostic methods connects the radiograph and MRI.

Using MRI, bone defects, the degree of compression of the lungs and displacement of the mediastinum are detected. The study also provides an opportunity to identify the pathology of soft tissues and bone structures.

If the doctor suspects that the work of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is impaired, he prescribes echocardiography, heart rate monitoring using the Holter method and a chest X-ray.

Chest deformity in children with conservative methods of therapy (drugs, massage, physiotherapy) is not treated.

If the defect is minor and there are no significant cardiorespiratory dysfunctions, the child is observed at home.

If there is a second or third degree of displacement, a surgical reconstruction is indicated. Usually, young patients are operated at the age of 6-7 years. There are many methods of correction with the help of surgical intervention, but only half of the children can achieve a positive effect from surgical correction.

Each operation is carried out in order to increase the volume of the chest and straighten the curved spine. After assigned supportive treatment: massage courses, corrective exercises, wearing orthopedic corsets.

The development of the chest of children and adolescents

The rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs. True ribs (first - seventh pairs) are connected to the sternum with the help of cartilages; from the remaining five false edges, the cartilaginous ends of the eighth, ninth and tenth pairs are connected to the cartilage of the overlying rib, and the eleventh and twelfth pairs have no rib cartilage and have the greatest mobility, since end freely. The second - the seventh pair of ribs are connected to the sternum by small joints.

The ribs are connected to the vertebrae by joints, which, when the ribcage is raised, determine the movement of the upper ribs mainly forward, and the lower ones - to the sides.

The sternum is unpaired bone, in which there are three parts: the handle, the body and the xiphoid process. The handle of the sternum articulates with the clavicle with the help of a joint containing an intra-cartilaginous disc (according to the nature of its movements, it approaches the spherical joints).

The shape of the chest depends on age and gender. In addition, the shape of the chest changes due to the redistribution of the body’s gravity during standing and walking, depending on the development of the muscles of the shoulder girdle.

Age-related changes in the formation of the chest

The ribs develop from the mesenchyme, which is transformed into cartilage in the second month of uterine life. Their ossification begins on the fifth - the eighth week, and the sternum - on the sixth month. The nuclei of ossification in the head and tubercle appear in the top ten ribs in 5–6 years, and in the last two ribs in 15 years. The merging of the rib parts ends by age 18-25.

Up to 1–2 years, the rib consists of a spongy substance. From 3-4 years old, the compact layer develops in the middle of the rib. From the age of 7, the compact layer grows over the entire rib. From the age of 10, the compact layer continues to grow in the corner region. By the age of 20, the ossification of the ribs is completed.

In the xiphoid process, the nucleus of ossification appears in 6-12 years. At 15–16 years, the lower parts of the body of the sternum grow together. In 25 years, the xiphoid process grows together with the body of the sternum.

The sternum develops from a variety of paired points of ossification, which merge extremely slowly. The ossification of the arm and body of the sternum ends by 21-25 years, the xiphoid process - by 30 years. The merging of the three parts of the sternum into one bone occurs much later, and not all people. Thus, the sternum is formed and develops later than all the other bones of the skeleton.

Chest shape

People have two extreme forms of the chest: long narrow and short wide. They correspond to the shape of the sternum. Among the main forms of the chest distinguish conical, cylindrical and flat form.

The shape of the chest changes significantly with age. After birth and in the first few years of life, the chest has a cone shape with a downward facing base. From the age of 2.5–3 years, the growth of the chest is parallel to the growth of the body; therefore, its length corresponds to the thoracic spine. Then the growth of the body is accelerated, and the chest becomes relatively shorter. In the first three years, an increase in the circumference of the chest is observed, which leads to the prevalence of transverse diameter in the upper chest.

Gradually, the chest changes its conical shape and approaches that of an adult, i.e. takes the form of a cone with the base facing up. The thorax acquires the final shape by the age of 12–13 years, but it is smaller than in adults.

Gender differences in the shape and circumference of the chest

Sex differences in the form of the chest appear around 15 years. From this age begins an intensive increase in the sagittal size of the chest. In girls, while inhaling, the upper ribs rise sharply, in boys, the lower ones.

Sexual differences are also observed in the growth of the chest circumference. In boys, the chest circumference from 8 to 10 years increases by 1–2 cm per year, by the period of puberty (from 11 years) - by 2–5 cm. For girls up to 7–8 years, the circumference of the chest exceeds half their size. growth. In boys, this ratio is observed up to 9-10 years, from this age half of the size of growth becomes greater than the size of the chest circumference. From the age of 11, boys have a lower growth rate than girls.

Exceeding half of the height above the chest circumference depends on the growth rate of the body, which is greater than the growth rate of the circumference of the chest. The growth of the circumference of the chest is inferior and the increase in body weight, so the ratio of body weight to the circumference of the chest decreases with age. The chest circumference grows most rapidly during puberty and in the summer-autumn period. Normal nutrition, good hygienic conditions and exercise have a dominant effect on the growth of the circumference of the chest.

The parameters of the development of the chest depends on the development of skeletal muscles: the more developed the skeletal muscles, the more developed the chest. Under favorable conditions, the chest circumference in children 12–15 years old is 7–8 cm longer than in adverse conditions. In the first case, the breast circumference equals half the height on average by the age of 15, and not by the age of 20–21, as in children who were in unfavorable living conditions.

Improper planting of children at the desk can lead to deformation of the chest and, as a consequence, impaired development of the heart, large vessels and lungs.

The rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs. True ribs (from the 1st to the 7th pair) are connected to the cartilage by sternum, of the remaining 5 false edges, the cartilaginous ends of the 8th, 9th and 10th pairs are connected to the cartilage of the overlying rib, and the 11th and 12th pairs do not have rib cartilage and have the greatest mobility, since they terminate freely. The 2nd — 7th pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum by small joints.

The ribs are connected to the vertebrae by joints, which, when the ribcage is raised, determine the movement of the upper ribs mainly forward, and the lower ones - to the sides.

Fig. 29. Spine column, chest and pelvic girdle on the right and several in front:
/ - cervical vertebrae, 2 - sternum, 3 - free ribs, 4 - lumbar vertebrae, 5 - sacrum, 6 - pelvic bone

The sternum is an unpaired bone, in which there are 3 parts: the handle, the body and the xiphoid process. The handle of the sternum articulates with the clavicle by means of a joint containing an intrachondral disk; according to the nature of the movements, it approaches the spherical.

The form chest depends on age and gender. The shape of the chest changes as a result of the redistribution of the force of gravity of the body when standing and walking, and also depending on the development of the muscles of the shoulder girdle.

The development of the chest. The ribs develop from the mesenchyme, which turns into cartilage in the 2nd month of uterine life. Their ossification begins at 5-8 pedela, and the sternum on the 6th month.

Bone system in children - research, examination, palpation

The nuclei of ossification in the head and tubercle appear in the upper 10 ribs in 5-6 years, and in the last 2 ribs in 15 years. The merging of the rib parts is completed by 18-25 years.

Up to 1-2 years, the edge consists of a spongy substance, the compact layer develops in the middle and corner of the edge from 3-4 years, and from 7 years it grows all over the edge and in 10 years continues to grow in the corner. The ossification of the ribs ends by about 20 years. In the xiphoid process of the sternum, the nucleus of ossification appears in 6-12 years, in 15-16 years the lower segments of the body of the sternum grow together, the xiphoid process grows together with its body in 25 years.

The sternum develops from a multitude of paired points of ossification, which very slowly merge. The ossification of the arm and body of the sternum ends by 21-25 years, the xiphoid process by 30 years, and the fusion of the three parts of the sternum into one bone occurs much later and far from all people. Consequently, the sternum is formed and develops later than all the other bones of the skeleton. People have two extreme forms of the chest: long, narrow and short, wide. These forms correspond to the shape of the sternum. The main forms of the chest are conical, cylindrical and flat.

The shape of the chest changes significantly with age. In the first years of life, in most cases it has, like in monkeys, a cone shape with a base facing down. Up to 2.5 - 3 years, the chest grows in parallel with the growth of the body, so its length corresponds to the thoracic spine. Later, the growth of the body is ahead of the growth of the chest, which becomes relatively shorter. The chest circumference in the first 3 years increases more than the length of the body, and later lags behind it. After 3 years in the upper part of the chest, the transverse diameter begins to predominate, and it gradually changes its conical shape to the characteristic human one. With age, in boys by the age of 7–8, and in girls a little earlier, it takes the form of a cone with the base facing upwards, that is, the transverse diameter of its upper part increases. The chest becomes the same shape as in adults, by 12-13 years, but has a smaller size. Sexual differences in the shape of the chest appear from about 15 years. With 15 years begins an intensive increase in the sagittal size of the chest. In the breath, the lower ribs rise sharply during inhalation, in the girls - the upper ribs.

Sexual differences are also observed in the growth of the chest circumference. In boys from 8 to 10 years, the chest circumference increases by 1-2 cm per year, and by the age of puberty, from 11 years, by 2-5 cm. The chest circumference exceeds half the height of girls to 7-8 years. and in boys it is up to 9-10, and from this age half the size of growth becomes greater than the size of the circumference of the chest. Boys from the age of 11 have a smaller increase than girls.

Exceeding half of the height above the chest circumference depends on the fact that the growth rate of the body is greater than the growth rate of the circumference of the chest. The increase in body weight also outpaces the growth of the circumference of the chest. Therefore, the ratio of the chest circumference to body weight gradually and evenly decreases with age.

During puberty and in the summer and autumn months, the chest circumference grows faster. The growth of the circumference of the chest is positively affected by a normal diet, good hygienic conditions and physical exercise. The development of the chest and its mobility depend on the development of skeletal muscles. The more developed skeletal muscles as a result of muscular activity, the more developed the chest, especially after systematic exercises in rowing, swimming, etc. Under these favorable living conditions, the circumference of the chest in children 12-15 years more than the unfavorable, by 7— 8 cm, the chest circumference is compared to half the height on average by the age of 15, and not by the age of 20-21, as in those who were in adverse conditions of life. In children with prolonged work, accompanied by compression of the chest, and with improper planting on the desk and supporting her chest, chest deformity can occur, which disrupts the development of the heart, large vessels and lungs.

Skeleton of the upper limbs

Skeleton of the lower limbs

During the life of a person's bones vary greatly. This is especially noticeable in the chest: in an infant, it does not look at all like in an adult. In this case, it is not only the configuration of this part of the skeleton that is different. The ribs and sternum of a newborn baby, in contrast to the similar bones of older children and an adult, are largely composed of cartilage tissue. This explains the high likelihood of deformation of the chest in children.

The shape of the chest in infants: norms and deviations

Children suffering from such lesions, as a rule, are physically much weaker than their peers, they are very susceptible to seasonal colds, have psychological problems, and sometimes lag behind in intellectual development. Fortunately, such ailments are successfully treated. Therefore, parents, noticing such abnormalities in the baby, should immediately contact the specialists, and not be afraid to follow their advice on the surgical treatment method, since this method today is the most effective in correcting abnormalities in the development of the chest in children.

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Till how old is the chest growing?

- Dad, do you notice anything new in me?

- No, daughter, but what?

- Well, Dad, I'm wearing a bra start, minus the first size!

Behind this, seemingly ridiculous, anecdote hides an absolutely serious tragedy of not one girl's life. Indeed, why does one girl have a third-size chest at age 15, the first one at another, and only the outlined hillocks are visible in the third? How long and to how many years does the female breast grow, and what does it depend on? Let's try to find answers to these questions.

There is no exact time frame and timing for the issue when the female breast begins and stops growing. Считается, первые признаки этого процесса могут обозначиться лет в девять – десять, а окончательное формирование молочных желёз происходит к 17-20 годам. Обусловлена такая нестабильность многими факторами. Среди них и наследственность с генетикой, и национальность, и гормональное состояние организма, и образ жизни и питания. Пойдём по порядку.

Спроси у мамы. Размер груди, как и цвет глаз, длина ног и многие другие характеристики женского тела, не берутся ни откуда. Дети, рождаясь, наследуют их от своих родителей. So, the surest way to determine how many years the chest grows in each particular case is to contact your mother, grandmother and aunt with this question. Genetics and heredity - a strong thing. Having studied in detail this question on the example of your relatives, you will quite accurately know to what age your own breast will grow.

Magic estrogen. The condition of the hormonal background of the girl also serves as a powerful indicator of how many years her chest will grow.

Female sex hormones are called estrogens. If there are enough of them, then the shape of the female body develops evenly and in a timely manner. Also, estrogens regulate the correct menstrual cycle, which is also important for the volume of the future bust. According to the endocrinology endocrinologists, it is possible to find out when the breast stops growing, by adding to the age of the first menstrual period 2-3 years. So, if the first menstruation has visited a girl at the age of 13, her bust will be formed by about 15-16 years old. But this does not mean that he has finally grown. Childbirth and feeding of the child also contribute to the increase in these volumes, because even with them estrogens are actively working.

Nationality and other factors. In addition to the above basic conditions, there are also minor ones. These include nationality, place of residence, physical condition of the body, weight and nutrition. Oddly enough, all these factors actively influence how old the girl's breasts grow.

Chest Forms

For example, it is noted that girls born in the south and east, or belonging to the southern and eastern nations, mature and form faster than their western and northern peers. It is also very important in adolescence, when the whole body is formed to follow his posture. If a girl slouches, moves a little and doesn’t do exercises, then the time of development of the mammary glands is retracted. On the contrary, when the back is even, the muscles are toned, and the chest is straightened, the bust is beautifully shaped and quickly becomes puffy. The regime and food, though indirectly, also have an influence on how long and to what years the breast grows. To improve this process in the food must be present proteins, fats and vitamins. Of course, beans, beans, carrots and cabbage will not speed up the time for the transformation of the mammary glands into beautiful Persie. However, it is healthy nutrition that will serve the normal all-round development of the organism as a whole, which will not be delayed in reflecting on the terms of the above-mentioned transformation.

And, finally, not least in this list is weight, since the mammary gland consists of 80 percent of adipose tissue. But in fact, it is not important until the age of the female breast grows, but how the woman herself relates to this.

Why does chest hurt before menstruation?

Many girls and women can, without schedules and calendars, determine when they will begin the next menstruation, according to unpleasant sensations in the chest. Moreover, the majority of the fair sex consider this phenomenon to be absolutely normal. What do gynecologists think about this?

How to conduct breast self-examination?

The fact that women need to conduct monthly breast self-examination, in order to identify suspicious seals and changes in the breast as a whole, everyone knows. But not every woman finds time and energy for this.

Breast discharge

Many women, having noticed the discharge from the mammary gland, panic, because they do not know whether this is the norm. Naturally, only a doctor can give you an unequivocal answer to this question; nevertheless, you can become more aware of this question right now.

Intraductal papilloma of the mammary gland

There are many different diseases of "female pride" - the chest. Today we want to tell you about one of them - intraductal papilloma of the mammary gland - a benign growth that forms inside the duct of the mammary gland.

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