The main causes of thrush in women


Vaginal candidiasis is familiar to most women under the simple name of thrush. This disease occurs with the active reproduction of Candida fungi in the vaginal mucosa when favorable factors occur.

Symptoms of thrush in women are bright enough - this is a heavy discharge of a cheesy nature, sometimes unbearable itching and burning in the crotch area (especially sitting on the leg), painful urination, as well as discomfort, burning and pain during intercourse. In this article we will take a closer look at why there is thrush in women, the causes, the trigger factors that change the normal microflora of the vagina.

Thrush in women is often combined with other infections.

At first glance, thrush is not a serious disease, it does not belong to sexually transmitted diseases and STIs, because yeast-like fungi are normally contained in the conditionally pathogenic flora of the vagina and, under normal immunity, do not cause pathological signs and unpleasant symptoms. However, candida mushrooms can be transmitted through sexual contact and are often combined with sexually transmitted infections.

Moreover, with a significant weakening of the body's defenses, the spread of the fungal infection may acquire a generalized form, lead to a breach of the course of pregnancy, infection of the fetus is possible during childbirth.

It should also be borne in mind that the majority of chronic gynecological diseases, including STDs, have an asymptomatic course, without vaginal discharge and other painful sensations.

Without a complete diagnosis, it is difficult to distinguish "unhealthy" discharge from normal. Therefore, you should not independently engage in the diagnosis and treatment of thrush, and you should definitely contact a gynecologist for a complete examination:

  • The doctor will take a smear (see increased white blood cells in a smear)
  • Will refer to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases - chlamydia (chlamydia in women - symptoms, treatment regimens), ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, gardnelerosis (discharge with the smell of fish in women), for this purpose, PCR, ELISA, RIF diagnostics are performed.
  • The clinical picture of thrush in a woman has similar symptoms with STIs and it should be remembered that in addition to candidiasis, there are other diseases that may be hidden. Therefore, it is so necessary to consult a doctor in case of any pathological symptoms in order to detect latent infections in time and carry out appropriate treatment without bringing them into the chronic course.

A woman’s thrush, regardless of the cause, is fairly easy to treat (Thrush for women is a treatment, drugs). Today, her treatment is very effective with a large arsenal of various antifungal drugs in gynecology, both local and systemic (review of the best candles for thrush). If a woman has thrush is chronic, often recurs, this is an indication for a more complete thorough examination, detection and treatment of disorders in the body, leading to a lack of an immune response to a fungal infection.

Why there is a thrush in women and girls - the causes of

A number of different external and internal causes, factors that violate the healthy microflora of the vagina, lead to the occurrence of thrush. This reduces the number of beneficial bacteria that naturally inhibit the intensive reproduction of fungi.

The pathogenic properties of fungal agents are manifested only with the active growth of fungal flora, causing inflammation of the vaginal mucosa in the form of vaginitis or colpitis. Moreover, the appearance of thrush in girls who are not sexually active is also possible, since its occurrence does not depend on sexual activity. The main causes of thrush in women:

Hormonal disruptions

Natural hormonal disruptions, surges, such as menopause, pregnancy or pathological abnormalities, such as diabetes in women, obesity, ovarian dysfunction, thyroid disease. Very often in older women, thrush is one of the first signs of diabetes mellitus; therefore, it is necessary to test for glucose in the blood every year.


Decrease in the body's defenses is triggered by food poisoning, severe injuries, vitamin deficiencies, burns and other serious illnesses.

With anorexia, unbalanced low-calorie diet, with some types of diets. Abuse of sweets, pastries, pastries also contribute to the development of thrush. It is believed that with abundant consumption of carrots, vegetables, fruits, restriction of digestible carbohydrates in the diet, you can get rid of a mild degree of vaginal candidiasis.

Antibiotic use

This is the most common and obvious cause of thrush in women, especially long or frequent treatment with various antimicrobials (11 rules on how to take antibiotics correctly). Since the reservoir of fungi Candida is the intestine, and when intestinal dysbiosis caused by taking antibiotics, as a rule, the spread of fungi in other organs, primarily in the vagina.

Wet linen

In some women, the cause of thrush can be the wearing of wet laundry, that is, bathing in open ponds, pools, as a wet environment contributes to the activity of Candida mushrooms.

  • Thrush is a frequent companion of pregnancy.
  • Long emotional stress, stressful situations.
  • Sharp climate change.
  • Use of hormonal contraception.

Synthetic underwear

Also, the cause of thrush can be a craze for synthetic underwear, especially the wearing of thong panties, kombidressov, tight pantyhose. In such underwear, heat transfer is disturbed, an enclosed space is formed according to the type of vacuum, the temperature rises in the crotch area and the humidity increases, which contributes to the reproduction of fungi.

For the same reason, thrush is more often diagnosed during the hot season, especially in overweight women (overheating).

Local factors

  • The use of colored scented toilet paper and deodorized pads.
  • Use for intimate hygiene of various antibacterial intimate gels, soaps, vaginal sprays, it reduces the local immunity and is the cause of thrush.
  • Women who have the habit of often douche by various means are unaware that they have a detrimental effect on the vaginal microflora. Douching with thrush soda, chamomile, solution of manganese is not permissible.
  • Violation of personal hygiene on trips, long journeys in the absence of normal conditions for taking a shower.
  • A rare change of tampons during menstruation and the use of panty liners can cause vaginal disbacteriosis.
  • Use of local contraceptives.
  • And, of course, hypothermia weakens the body's defenses, which leads to the activation of yeast fungi.

Women who are not sexually active may also experience thrush due to personal hygiene, antibiotic use, hormonal disruptions, or intestinal dysbiosis (treatment).

If itching, burning, and discomfort occurs during and after intercourse, the gynecologist should be examined as early as possible, since this may not only be a symptom of thrush in women. The causes of candidiasis may be associated with deeper violations in the body of a woman, the treatment of which is impossible without a thorough diagnosis. Chronic difficult-to-treat thrush can be a sign of diabetes mellitus, intestinal dysbiosis, HIV infection, cancer.

Where does the thrush come from

Candidiasis got its national name due to the fact that the secretions appearing when it causes many people to associate with milk, or rather, with cottage cheese. Every woman with the appearance of thrush shows abundant white vaginal discharge, in its consistency very similar to cottage cheese.

The causative agent of the disease, called thrush, is a fungus of the genus Candidanumbering about 150 species. Normally, this fungus is present in the body of each person, being part of the normal microflora, for example, in the vagina in women. These microorganisms are necessary to maintain the normal pH of the vaginal microflora, which is important for the state of the epithelium, as well as for the process of conception.

The immune system is always on guard to maintain the normal state and inhibits the reproduction of fungi if necessary, but with a weakened immunity, these microorganisms are activated and lead to the appearance of the disease. Quite often, when the state of the immune system is normalized, the body itself copes with thrush, but in some situations medical care is required.

Low immunity

This cause of thrush in girls is the most common and common. For many women, it is enough to catch a cold or any similar infectious viral disease so that candidiasis appears immediately.

With a strong weakening of the immune system, caused by any serious or prolonged illness, thrush can spread throughout the body, forming inflammation not only in the vagina (in women) and on the genitals (in men), but also in the intestines, as well as in oral cavity. In this case, thrush requires complex and very difficult treatment.

If time does not begin treatment, aimed primarily at strengthening the immune system and restoring the body's defenses, candidiasis can become chronic and create a lot of inconvenience and trouble, manifesting itself in the presence of any factor favorable to fungi.


Improper nutrition is also a common cause of candidiasis in a woman. For the normal existence of the body, each person per day should consume a certain amount of fat, protein and carbohydrates, with an optimal ratio of vitamins and other nutrients.

Meals should be balanced and foods that the body gets everything that it needs. But some women (like men and children) have a special weakness for sweets and various baked goods and use them in very large quantities, often not controlling such actions and exceeding all reasonable norms.

In this case, too much sugar gets into the blood, which the body cannot adequately cope with. Because of this, the vaginal microflora is also changing, where a special “sweet” atmosphere is created, very favorable for the rapid reproduction of fungi. For this reason, all sweet teeth often suffer from thrush..

The state of the vaginal microflora largely depends on the general level of hormones in the body and the available hormonal levels. Any hormonal disruptions caused by stress, pregnancy, certain phases of the menstruation cycle, menopause, various pathological conditions, obesity, diabetes, thyroid gland disorders, ovarian or adrenal dysfunction, and other factors can create optimal conditions for the development of fungi.

Another hormonal problem is contraception in this category. Abuse of hormonal contraceptivesas well as their unjustified use, they often lead to hormonal disruptions observed both for certain types of hormones and for the general hormonal background, which also creates an environment that is favorable for the development of fungi.


Another common cause of thrush is the use of antibiotics.. Today, many diseases are simply impossible to cure without the use of antibiotic and antimycotic drugs. Such tools allow you to eliminate many very dangerous diseases in just a few days, saving you from the possible serious consequences that have become possible thanks to the development of modern medicine.

But any means in this category have many side effects. Besides, any antibiotics are not able to have an effect on only one specific type of harmful microorganismswithout affecting others, therefore, as a rule, various floras suffer.

Disruption of the mucous membranes in many organs can lead to the activation of Candida fungi and the appearance of thrush, especially in the vagina and oral cavity.

Synthetic and wet underwear

Many women are fond of wearing synthetic underwear, more attractive and refined, compared to natural cotton models, as well as combidress and thong panties.

This kind of underwear makes the woman's body very harmful.But many do not pay attention to this for the sake of fashion and personal tastes. Linen from synthetics breaks natural heat exchange, especially tight, tight models, creating a semblance of vacuum space.

For this reason, the temperature in the perineal zone begins to rise, as does the level of humidity, and this contributes to the rapid reproduction of fungi. Especially dangerous in this regard, the wearing of such clothes in hot weather.

The cause of candidiasis can be wet clothes. Some women, after bathing in ponds or pools, are not in a hurry to take a shower and change into dry clothes, thus providing a favorable moist environment conducive to the development of thrush.

Other reasons

Among other reasons for the frequent appearance of thrush can be noted metabolic disorders, which is almost always observed in obese women, and in half of the cases this is due to the presence of diabetes at any stage.

When a metabolic disorder occurs, failure occurs not only in the blood sugar regulation system, but also in the processes of natural protein and fat metabolism. As a rule, this happens and the violation of flora in the vagina.

Pregnancy is another factor.After all, it is not a secret to anyone that thrush is a very frequent companion of this important period for every woman.

Already from the first days of pregnancy, there is a decrease in the immune systemthat is necessary for normal gestation and development of the fetus. If this does not happen, the woman has a miscarriage, because the immune system determines the fertilized egg as a foreign body and seeks to get rid of it. A decrease in immunity (necessary for a normal pregnancy) leads to the development of many ailments, including thrush.

Causes of thrush in women

If we talk about the causes of thrush in women, the most important of them is a decrease in immunity.

That is, there is a decrease in the protective function of the body, it becomes impossible to control the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. As a result, candidiasis develops, which affects the mucous tissues of the genital tract and contributes to the development of the inflammatory process.

Consider other causes of thrush in women.

Antibacterial drugs

The action of antibiotics is not only aimed at eliminating pathogenic bacteria, but also on the natural microflora of the body. As a result, beneficial bacteria are destroyed, including lactobacilli, which are normally present on mucous genital tract.

As a result, the protective barrier disappears, Candida begins to grow. The fungus is not sensitive to antibacterial drugs, and therefore actively reproduces.

For many girls, candidiasis appears before menstruation. The reason is the same - a decrease in immunity in front of critical days as a result of hormonal adjustment in the body.

Reception of contraception

Other causes of thrush in women are contraceptive use:

  • Hormonal drugs aimed at protection from conception, contribute to the formation of an alkaline environment in the vagina, which is beneficial for the fungus.
  • Other contraceptives have a negative effect on lactobacilli.
  • Prolonged use of the IUD (intrauterine device) also contributes to the development of a fungal infection.

Accompanying illnesses

A number of internal diseases contribute to the appearance of candidiasis. These are such as:

  • diabetes and other diseases of the endocrine system,
  • human immunodeficiency virus, aids,
  • intestinal dysbiosis,
  • blood diseases
  • tuberculosis and more.

Unbalanced nutrition

Of great importance in the health of women is food. A large amount of chocolate, sugary foods, flour dishes, food in fast foods can provoke the development of candidiasis even in a healthy woman.

The other extreme is diets, which leads to a lack of protein, nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. All this is reflected in the state of microflora.

Improper hygiene

Asking what causes frequent thrush, you should think about intimate hygiene. Нарушение правил личной гигиены чревато проблемами с микрофлорой.

Когда возникает кандидоз, как с ним бороться? Стоит прислушаться к следующим рекомендациям:

  • Чрезмерное применение мыла, гелей, спреев для интимной гигиены способствует нарушению нормальной среды. The natural microflora of the vagina is washed out, as a result, the fungus is activated.
  • It is necessary to minimize the use of panty liners. If you can not do without them, then it is better to choose non-flavored products, and change them at least three times a day.
  • When using toilet paper it is also recommended to choose products without fragrances and dyes, which lead to the development of inflammatory processes.

The occurrence of candidiasis can trigger the wearing of improper linen. In order to avoid problems, it is better to remove synthetic and tight panties from the wardrobe, which can affect the vaginal microflora and contribute to the development of the disease.

What inexpensive and effective candles from thrush can be applied? Read the article on the indications and rules for the use of suppositories, contraindications and possible side effects.

What pain pills can be used for menstruation? Details here.

Principles of treatment

Treatment for thrush is complex. It includes topical preparations and oral tablets. In pregnancy, therapy can only be local.

Self-medication for candidiasis is unacceptable. Drugs prescribed only by a doctor based on the results of tests. Only a survey provides an opportunity to find out what means the fungus will be sensitive to. In addition, the pathogen produces very quickly resistance to a number of drugs.

When fighting vaginal candidiasis, it is important not only to take medications and follow all recommendations, but also to follow a certain diet. It is necessary to exclude from the diet:

  • sweet,
  • fatty
  • smoked
  • flour,
  • salty,
  • sauces, marinades, vinegar,
  • fruits that contain a lot of sugar.

All these products contribute to the activation of Candida.

If a woman has a permanent sexual partner, then treatment is also necessary for him. Candidiasis is not only a female disease. The carrier of a pathogenic fungus can be a man, infecting a woman again and again.

To avoid consequences in the form of inflammatory gynecological diseases, a woman should consult a doctor in a timely manner if there are symptoms of thrush. A course of therapy and compliance with medical recommendations will help get rid of the pathogen and avoid relapses in the future.

On the video about the development of the disease

What is thrush in women?

Thrush in women is a disease of the vagina called candidiasis in science. Associations with milk among the population have arisen due to the fact that women have white discharge on their genitals, similar in texture to cottage cheese.

The causative agent of the disease is Candida albicans fungus. Scientists estimate that this microorganism is present in the body in 80% of people as its own microflora, without causing any problems. The woman's vagina is normally not sterile. Microorganisms are present on its epithelium, including this fungus. He is involved in maintaining the normal pH of the vagina, which is very important for the epithelium itself, the process of fertilization.

In addition, the vaginal flora competes with other undesirable microorganisms and reduces the likelihood of developing infectious diseases. At the same time, the immunity of the female body strictly monitors the state of affairs and, if necessary, inhibits the reproduction of "their" bacteria. If for some reason this does not happen or conditions are created for their active reproduction, then the likelihood of developing thrush increases.

Symptoms of thrush in women

The disease has quite specific manifestations, which allows physicians to quickly make the correct diagnosis. Often, women themselves, even before visiting the doctor, understand that they have an illness and begin to make their own attempts at treatment, which is unacceptable.

So, for thrush characteristic:

Cheesy discharge from the vulva. They are especially noticeable on dark underwear. Represent mucus with a large number of white lumps.

Feeling of itching and burning in the vagina. In no case should one try to scratch the affected area strongly, as this can damage the tender, inflamed epithelium and create conditions for the penetration of pathogens into the depth of the tissues. Also, when combing, secretions spread to a large surface and cause additional inflammation.

Pain and discomfort when urinating - due to a decrease in the protective properties of vaginal mucus and urethra. The epithelium is defenseless against such an aggressive fluid as urine, and inflammation increases the sensitivity of the receptors.

The pain and burning sensation during sexual intercourse is only one of the reasons why it is worth refusing to conduct sex until the disease recedes.

Smell - you should talk about it separately. It is not very pronounced and has a sour tint ("kefir"). In most cases, it feels only a woman, but for her it is a very big problem. Patients believe that all her interlocutors will certainly be able to catch it. Many sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial vaginosis are accompanied by a really unpleasant odor, but it has practically nothing in common with thrush.

In case of erased (atypical) flow of thrush and mild symptoms of women, only one of the indicated signs can disturb. It is impossible to learn about the disease in such cases without professional help. Candidiasis often accompanies many gynecological diseases, including hidden and dangerous sexually transmitted infections. Only a qualified doctor is able to analyze the symptoms and prescribe the correct treatment. Self-diagnosis in severe cases of the manifestation of the disease is useless, and self-treatment is dangerous.

Comparative table of characteristic symptoms for thrush, bacterial vaginitis and trichomoniasis can be seen in the table. To consider it as an aid in the diagnosis is not worth it. The diagnosis is made by the doctor based on the tests, examination and complaints of the patient. Even in such cases it is possible the presence of other genital infections associated with thrush. Self-medication is unacceptable. All appointments must be made by the attending physician.

Discharges: Homogeneous, thick, milky, resembling cottage cheese

Discomfort: Burning, itching, pain during intercourse and urination

What it is

Initially, you need to deal with those terms and concepts that will have to operate in this article. So what is thrush? Immediately it should be noted that this disease is not venereal and most often has no relation to sexual contact. However, during intimate relationships can still be transferred to the partner.

So, what is thrush in women? It should be noted that this disease causes a particular Candida fungus, which lives in the mucous membrane of each person. But under certain circumstances, it begins to grow too actively, develop, parasitize and cause the occurrence of this unpleasant disease. As a small conclusion, I would like to note that thrush is candidiasis. It occurs when peaceful, positive lactic acid bacteria are unable to restrain the fungus. The result is that such a disease develops.

Hormonal imbalance as one of the causes of thrush

It should also be noted that the occurrence of thrush in women can occur as a result of hormonal imbalance. That is why women who take contraceptives, as well as carrying a child, should pay more attention to preventive measures for this disease. And all because some hormones can significantly change the environment of the vagina. So, in a normal state, it is moderately acidic. When hormonal imbalance becomes alkaline. Which contributes to a more rapid and active reproduction of fungi of the genus Candida.


What should I tell, if such a problem is considered, like thrush in women? Causes, treatment and necessarily diagnostic methods. How can you understand that a lady has this particular disease? First of all, the above symptoms will indicate this. If at least one of them is present, you should immediately seek the help of a gynecologist. What will the specialist do?

  1. Bacterioscopy, that is, a smear on the flora. As a result, you can find out if the patient has pathogenic bacteria.
  2. Sometimes doctors prescribe microflora seeding to determine a special nutrient medium in which mushrooms can successfully grow and multiply.
  3. Colposcopy, that is, examination of the vagina with a special tool. At the same time, the vagina is treated with a special solution, as a result of which semolina grains are visible. This is the very thrush.

Stages of treatment for thrush

It should also be noted that to get rid of this disease should be comprehensive. You can not eliminate only the symptoms, it will be ineffective. What are the stages of the fight against this disease?

  1. Direct elimination of fungi themselves. This can be done with a laser or medication. May need a couple of sessions.
  2. You also need to increase the body's defenses.
  3. Examine and possibly even need to treat a sexual partner. After all, the answer to the question: “Is thrush transmitted from a woman to a man?” Is positive.

And, of course, during treatment you need to follow a special diet. So, it is forbidden to eat yeast products, milk, sugar, as well as drink beer.

In this case, we must not forget that it is necessary to undergo the entire course of treatment. After all, if the symptoms disappear, it still does not mean that the disease has passed. If ahead of time to stop taking medication, the disease can return the next day.

The use of ointments for thrush

You can also use ointment for thrush for women. However, it is worth recalling that treatment should be comprehensive. That is, one ointment will not work. What drugs in this case can be used?

  1. Ointment "Pimafutsin". Positive aspects: fast action, long lasting results and no side effects.
  2. The next ointment for thrush for women is the drug Clotrimazole. You can use it no longer than 6 days.
  3. If the infection is prolonged, doctors may prescribe miconazole ointment.
  4. The drug "Econazole" can be used not only by women, but also their sexual partners in parallel.

Preventive measures

As mentioned above, the problem is easier to prevent than to treat it. That is why prevention of thrush in women is so important. What, then, should be done?

  1. It is important to constantly strengthen the immune system.
  2. A woman must comply with all measures of personal hygiene.
  3. It must be remembered that underwear should be made from natural materials. You should also avoid narrow pants, which can also provoke the development of the disease.
  4. It is possible to become infected with this disease in pools, in open reservoirs. So if there is such a feature of the body, it is better to avoid public places.

Also important is the delicious prevention of thrush in women. Need to eat more fruits and vegetables. And you can not self-medicate, taking uncontrolled medication.