Side effects and reactions after vaccination against hepatitis in 1 month
Modern parents are informed about the need for timely immunization of the child. Vaccination schedule includes a number of mandatory vaccinations, one of which is from hepatitis B. Consider what this disease is and why it is better to defend against it in advance. Also find out the composition of vaccinations, vaccination schedule and what are possible contraindications.
Why is hepatitis B dangerous? Why is vaccination necessary?
Type B hepatitis is a viral disease that can be both acute and chronic. The virus enters the body in various ways - from mother to child during its passage through the birth canal, through blood transfusion, sexually. Often, an infection occurs in the dentist’s office or beauty salon with an insufficiently sterilized instrument.
The acute phase may pass unnoticed, and may be characterized by yellowing of the skin and sclera. The patient may have complaints of pain and discomfort in the liver, weakness, and general discomfort.
In some patients, the body is self-cured of the disease and forms a strong immunity to the hepatitis B virus. In others, the acute phase becomes chronic. The described condition is dangerous because irreversible processes begin to occur in the liver - cells called hepatocytes are replaced by fibrous tissue - fibrosis, cirrhosis and even liver cancer develops.
Statistics say that self-healing more often happens if a person gets sick with hepatitis B at the age of 40-60 years - then about 95% of patients recover. If the baby is sick before the year, the probability of self-healing is low - about 5%. In the age group from 1 year to the end of the preschool period in every third patient, the disease becomes chronic.
In this regard, immunization from this disease is fully justified, since it allows the child to form immunity by artificial means. No wonder this type of vaccination is funded by the state and is included in the mandatory list of vaccinations.
Not everyone knows that there is a vaccine against hepatitis A. Children are given it only in cases where the risk of infection is high. However, the pattern of use of this vaccine is different from hepatitis B, and this immunization is not necessary.
Consider what the composition of the hepatitis B vaccine is. One dose (5 ml) of the drug used for children under 19 years old includes:
- Fragments of the envelope of the hepatitis B virus, which are called antigen (HBsAg) - 10 µg. The body perceives these molecules as foreign and produces antibodies to them, that is, it forms an immune response.
- Aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant - a substance that can enhance the production of antibodies.
- The preservative is thiomersal.
In the Russian Federation, several types of vaccines are used - there are imported and domestic ones. They are all interchangeable - if one vaccination is made with the drug Endzheriks V (Belgium), then the next one can be done with DTP Hep B (Russia) or Shanvak B (India).
Domestic vaccine is available in glass vials or ampoules of 5-10 ml. In a carton 50 ampoules or 10, 25, 50 bottles.
Vaccination against viral hepatitis can be given to a person from birth to 55 years old, if he has not been vaccinated before. The standard schedule is as follows:
- The first injection is made to the newborn within 12-24 hours after delivery,
- the next vaccine is administered in 30 days - per month,
- the third vaccination is performed in half a year.
If you fail to follow the plan, you should try to observe the minimum period between the introduction of the vaccine. The second vaccination should be performed no earlier than one month after the first, and the third one no earlier than two months after the second.
A different vaccination scheme is also used, which involves administering the vaccine 4 times. Vaccination for hepatitis newborn is performed in any case in the first 24 hours, the further schedule of injections may be as follows:
- 2 vaccinations after 30 days
- 3 - in 2 months
- 4 - in 12 months.
This scheme allows the child to get immunity accelerated method. This method is used if the baby was born from an infected woman, the child has been in contact with a sick person or in other cases.
The choice of sites is due to the fact that it is in them that the densest layer of muscle tissue is noted. This makes it possible to perform the injection as deeply as possible.
Most civilized countries vaccinate newborns against hepatitis B right in the maternity hospital. However, to begin with, the mother of the baby must consent to the vaccination.
Do not vaccinate premature babies born with a weight of less than 2 kg, as well as those who are allergic. Before the introduction of the vaccine, a neonatologist assesses the results of a newborn's blood test, examines the skin, and checks reflexes.
At the same time, jaundice of newborns is not a contraindication to vaccination. Doctors say that vaccination does not give an additional load on the liver and does not aggravate the course of the disease.
In the month of vaccination is carried out in the children's clinic. Parents bring the child to the scheduled examination, and the pediatrician issues a referral for vaccination. This procedure is very important, because after the initial vaccination immunity is formed for a short period and must be consolidated.
It is desirable that after the first vaccination at least 30 days have passed. However, if the deadlines have been delayed for more than 5 months, it is recommended to start the vaccination program again.
At 6 months, the final stage of vaccination against hepatitis B is carried out. Only two weeks after the third injection of the vaccine, long-term immunity is formed.
If the baby is behind schedule, and his first vaccine was given later than necessary, it is important that at least 6 months pass between the starting dose and the final dose. If the period between injections is extended significantly, the doctor decides on re-vaccination.
How many times in a life do you need to be vaccinated against hepatitis B, how long does it last?
Until recently, it was believed that immunity after vaccination remains active for 7 years. However, studies have shown that those who received the vaccine a quarter of a century ago also remained protected.
However, people at risk are recommended to be vaccinated every 5 years throughout their lives. These are physicians dealing with patients with hepatitis, patients who need blood transfusions, nurses, etc.
What to do if the terms of vaccination of children against hepatitis B are violated and one of the vaccines is missed?
Consider how long a break between vaccinations can last, as well as pediatricians' recommendations:
- Missing the first vaccination, which must be performed in the hospital. Hepatitis B immunization can be started at any age, after which it is possible to act according to the schedule used for infants.
- Missed the second vaccine, which must be done in a month. In this situation, the period between the first and second vaccination may be 1-4 months. If more time has passed, the pediatrician decides whether to continue the schedule or start the vaccination scheme from the beginning.
- Missing third hepatitis vaccine. 3 injection is allowed for one and a half years after the first vaccination. If this period is also missed, a blood test for the concentration of antibodies to hepatitis is indicated. Sometimes immunity lasts longer than 18 months, then there is no need to repeat the program and the course can be completed in the usual way.
Contraindications to vaccination
Contraindications to vaccination are divided into temporary and permanent. Infectious diseases, elevated body temperature, low birth weight or prematurity can be considered temporary.
If a child has a fever, scheduled vaccination is canceled.
To permanent include:
- severe allergic reactions in children to previous vaccinations - anaphylactic shock, angioedema, febrile seizures,
- yeast allergy,
- some diseases of the nervous system that tend to progress.
Possible side effects in children
Most often, children are easily tolerated and no side effects are given. However, in rare cases, an atypical reaction to the hepatitis vaccine is possible. Consider the possible consequences:
- Temperature rise to subfebrile values. Occasionally, a thermometer reading at 39-40 ° C is possible.
- Redness of the skin around the place where the injection was made. It is also possible itching, the appearance of red halo.
Allergic manifestations after vaccination against hepatitis are recorded no more than one case per million. Sometimes in children who are allergic to yeast, after vaccination, the reaction to bakery products is aggravated. However, such cases are not observed often.
Hepatitis B vaccine is tolerated by children quite easily, in rare cases, a seal may occur at the injection site.
How to cope with the effects of vaccination?
Consider what the main actions of parents should be if the baby has an atypical reaction to vaccination:
- When the temperature rises to 38 ° C and above, you must give the child antipyretic. Paracetamol or Ibuprofen in an age dosage will do. You can use the drug in the form of a syrup, as well as in the form of suppositories.
- In case of reddening and hardening of the skin at the injection site, it is necessary to lubricate the affected area with Troxevasinum or a resorption agent. If a lump appeared at the injection site, a cabbage leaf can be attached to it.
- If the parents notice that the child has a sore leg, into which they have given the injection, it is worthwhile to give the baby an anesthetic drug.
- With signs of allergies - itching, spotting, hives - you can give the child an antihistamine.
If serious allergic reactions are suspected - signs of suffocation, swelling of the lips, leg swelling, bright spots all over the body have appeared - you should immediately call an ambulance. Waiting for the doctor can give the child antihistamine drops.
Is hepatitis B vaccine required?
Hepatitis B is a serious infectious disease of viral origin, which primarily affects liver cells and is highly resistant to many antiviral drugs.
There are various forms of hepatitis, for example, with acute symptoms of jaundice or liver failure. The disease can lead to the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Blank agreement to conduct vaccination give sign in the hospital. If agreement was signed, then re-vaccination of the newborn is done in one month. In infants, the immune system is underdeveloped and the disease often leads to serious consequences. If you start the scheme at this time, then the effectiveness of it will be much higher.
The reaction after vaccine administration is different for all children. It all depends on the overall health of the child at the time of the procedure and the work of immunity.
Inoculation, according to the legislation of the Russian Federation, is not mandatory. Any adult can write a waiver request. Therefore, the question: is it necessary to vaccinate the child against hepatitis, the parents decide on their own.
Normal baby reaction to vaccination
Parents, worrying about the health of the baby, are often interested in, what reaction to hepatitis B vaccine is considered normal? Ideally, there should be no change in the child’s behavior and condition. Too sensitive children may develop the following symptoms:
- rise in body temperature, but not higher than 37, 5 degrees,
- increased sweating
- pain in the place where the drug was injected,
- loss of appetite, moodiness, restless sleep in the first two days after vaccination.
All other occurring reactions that last more than one day, belong to the pathological group. This may be a rash, a high rise in body temperature, nausea, frequent regurgitation, joint pain.
If there is severe vomiting, convulsions, the condition indicates the beginning of some infectious process that is not associated with vaccination.
Most children tolerate the vaccine well. After about 3-4 weeks, the immune system is formed and the body’s defensive reaction against the disease is activated.
In newborns, vaccination usually passes easily, painlessly and rarely causes adverse reactions. In the body there is weakness, drowsiness, a little headache. The baby becomes irritable, cries for a long time, does not break away from the chest, falls asleep and sleeps only in the arms, sleep is intermittent, often the baby wakes up with crying.
A specialist should be consulted if the signs of general malaise do not disappear for more than two days and other warning signs have joined.
Since newborns do not have thermoregulation processes, the body is susceptible to any environmental changes.
- The temperature in infants after vaccination against hepatitis B often does not exceed 37.5 degrees. The ascent is fixed 6–7 hours after vaccination, which is a normal immune response to foreign bodies.
- The average degree of post-vaccination reaction is characterized by a rise in temperature of up to 38.5 degrees and requires the use of antipyretic drugs.
- In severe cases, the measurement on the thermometer exceeds the mark of 38.5 degrees.
Compaction and redness at the injection sites
Another common side effect after vaccination against hepatitis in newborns is a local reaction. It develops due to the increased sensitivity of the organism to the main component of many vaccines. The injection site is swollen, red, compacted, with slight pressure pain appears. Symptoms are exacerbated if water gets into the injection site.
The reaction is considered normal if the swelling and induration does not exceed 6–7 cm, and the redness is no more than 8 cm. After the drug goes into the bloodstream, the inflammation will of course pass (approximately in a week). It is not recommended to put compresses, and apply ointment.
Dangerous complications after hepatitis B vaccination
Despite all the precautions and taking into account all possible contraindications, there is always a percentage of complications. Complications after vaccination against hepatitis include:
- severe allergic manifestations such as urticaria, anaphylactic shock, severe rash all over the body, myocarditis, arthritis,
- erythema nodosum,
- rise in body temperature up to 40 degrees
- severe muscle and joint pain,
- neurological disorders.
Vaccination prevents liver diseases caused by hepatitis A and B. Numerous studies have shown that vaccination does not affect the development of jaundice in newborns, and even reduces the risk of its development. Therefore, no treatment of the liver after the procedure is required.
To avoid all these complications, you must follow all the recommendations of the doctor. Two days after vaccination, you cannot wet the injection site, you can not enter into the diet of a nursing mother new products and it is better to refuse to walk on the street. During the week it is not recommended to give vitamin D.
Hepatitis B is a dangerous disease with a high risk of developing cirrhosis and cancer, which are a threat to the health and life of a child. In the majority of children infected with hepatitis, the disease passes from the acute to the chronic stage.
What is hepatitis B vaccine?
To develop a stable and good immunity to the disease, you need to do three vaccinations. Vaccines can be combined (include additional components), and there is another type - monovalent.
Hepatitis vaccines of Russian and foreign production are used in our country:
- Bubo Kok (prevents diseases such as whooping cough, hepatitis, tetanus and diphtheria).
- Recombinant yeast vaccine.
- Endzheriks V.
Both imported and Russian vaccines are characterized by high reliability and safety, they are all interchangeable. The difference can only be in the components, so doctors recommend putting vaccinations in the course of the same manufacturer.
Where do vaccinated newborn?
Vaccination does not require special preparation. Before the procedure, the doctor examines the child, measures the temperature, listens to the chest. If there are no abnormalities in the health of the child, then referral to the vaccination room is given.
Injections can be administered intramuscularly in the thigh or shoulder. In a special syringe recruit 1 ml of the drug. It is impossible to inject the drug under the skin, as this reduces the effectiveness of the vaccine and causes a strong local reaction.
In infants and children under the age of three, the drug is injected into the thigh. It is here that the muscles that are close to the skin are best developed. All this helps to prevent the occurrence of strong local reactions. Children over three years old and adults are given a shot in the shoulder.
What are these vaccines and who needs them most?
Hepatitis causes as many as eight different viruses. Поэтому их и называют по алфавиту: А,В,С,D…Как и все вирусы, они очень живучи и сохраняются в крови или сперме даже если она засохла, живя еще две недели. Но если гепатит А лечится довольно просто, причем прививка от него не слишком нужна, то последствия и осложнения вируса типа В могут быть ужасными: цирроз печени, рак печени, инвалидность, а дети часто не выживают. Вакцин от гепатита С не придумали.You should not assume that if your family is well, then hepatitis B simply has no place to catch the child: taking blood, the nurse forgot to wear new gloves, the child can find a syringe or things on the street. The virus belongs to the drug addict, and in children's clinics, and in school, and in kindergartens, and in the yard, where a child can fight blood with an infected neighbor kid ... The consequences of these ordinary events can be the saddest, so the antihepatitis vaccine is one of the first . If no contraindications are found in the baby, they do it right in the maternity hospital. The next time they do it in one month, and then - in six months. If a child has a risk of being infected, vaccination is carried out according to a “fast” scheme: at birth, per month, at two, and per year. At the same time, immunity is developed as quickly as possible. Before an emergency operation, you can do an emergency vaccination: in the hospital, after a week, after three and after 12 months. But this is again the same if no contraindications have been identified.
The most popular vaccines are Evuks, Combotech and Endzheriks B, which include immunogenic proteins containing the virus itself, and antibodies to it begin to appear a couple of weeks after vaccination.
Of course, she has contraindications, but nobody needs hepatitis either.
It is impossible to refuse vaccinations in several cases:
- If the parents used or use drugs,
- If your mother found the hepatitis B virus in your blood, or she became infected in late pregnancy,
- If there are sick or just virus owners among other relatives of the child,
- If in the region where the baby was born, this disease is very common,
- If the mother's body for the presence of this virus was not examined at all.
Despite the contraindications, vaccines are usually tolerated quite easily even by the smallest. Side effects and complications after vaccination against hepatitis occur very rarely: no more than five percent of those vaccinated.
- Thus, the vaccination site may turn red and a seal or nodule may appear in its place (for example, on the shoulder or on the thigh). This happens, for example, if the vaccination was not done to the muscle, but not to the fatty tissue. And redness and compaction may occur if the child is allergic to aluminum hydroxide. Even the skin may redden if the injection site was accidentally wetted. If the child soaked the vaccine, you should not be afraid; you can just get wet with a towel or a napkin, but do not press. There will be no negative consequences. And what about the seal? It will resolve necessarily, and even without using any ointments. But, you may have to re-vaccinate because the vaccine has been absorbed into the blood for too long. All this should be consulted exclusively with the pediatrician.
- Itching is less common. This is an allergy and you need to take antihistamines.
- Quite rarely, but there is a slightly elevated temperature. It may occur after a quarter of a day and also passes quickly, but if it is delayed, you can serve antipyretic baby. But if it is less than 38 degrees, then do not lower it - it is just antibodies produced.
- There may also be mild weakness, dizziness, pain in the muscles and joints, headaches, and just an indisposition. This can tell the cry baby
- Rarely, but there are other side effects, such as nausea and excessive sweating, as well as diarrhea.
All this is quite normal after vaccination: during the formation of immunity, anything can happen to the body. This state lasts no more than three days and passes on its own. Complications such as anaphylactic shock, facial nerve paralysis, and sometimes peripheral neuropathy occur much less frequently. All this is extremely rare and requires the help of doctors.
And yet, if there are no contraindications to the hepatitis B vaccine, it is better to install it and secure the child. After all, the consequences of hepatitis B can be more dangerous than slightly increased fever and allergies.
What is dangerous for hepatitis B?
This is an infectious disease of viral etiology that mainly affects human liver cells. The causative agent is a DNA virus of the same name. There are many clinical forms of infection, ranging from asymptomatic virus infection to acute icteric hepatitis, chronic disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer, acute or chronic liver failure.
How can you get hepatitis B?
Infected with hepatitis B virus in the following ways:
- With blood transfusions (plasma, red blood cells, platelets, leykomassa, etc.) or whole blood,
- Direct contact with blood and some other body fluids of a sick person or a virus carrier (injection with a syringe, other medical instruments),
- Infection through unprotected sex,
- With close household contacts in a family where there is a patient with hepatitis and an unvaccinated child,
- Vertical transmission - from mother to child (during pregnancy with pathology of the placenta and childbirth).
1. Why are they vaccinated against hepatitis B for newborns?
The fact is that it is newborns who have a high risk of complications and the development of chronic infection with hepatitis B infection due to the underdevelopment of the immune system. In addition, not all pregnant women are screened for carriers of the virus, and the existing methods for its determination do not have 100% accuracy. Therefore, the risk that the mother may be a carrier of the infection and pass it on to the baby during the birth is large enough.
Also, the effectiveness of vaccination will be maximum if it is started from the first days of a child’s life and all terms of revaccination are observed.
2. Who is shown to be vaccinated against hepatitis B?
All newborns are to be vaccinated against hepatitis B (according to the national immunization schedule). In addition to newborns, hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for the following population groups (risk groups):
- children born to mothers who have hepatitis or are carriers of the virus,
- patients who receive intravenous infusions of blood components for a long time,
- people who are on treatment with programmed hemodialysis,
- all medical workers, especially - manipulation and surgical nurses, surgeons,
- family members where there is a patient with hepatitis,
- people who are going to a region with an increased incidence of hepatitis B,
- injection drug addicts, people with a lot of casual sex.
3. What are the hepatitis B vaccines?
Currently, only genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B are allowed for use. They are made by gene modification of recombinant viral DNA in yeast fungal cells. The hepatitis B virus has several antigens to which a person may develop immunity. All vaccines have virus coat surface antigen (HBsAg). It is to this immunogenic component that immunity develops in vaccinated people.
Do not be afraid that after vaccination, you can get hepatitis. This can not happen. Indeed, only one antigen of the virus is introduced into the body with a vaccine, and not a full-fledged infectious agent.
As a rule, they use the vaccine purchased by the medical institution (in most cases they are domestic). Do this vaccination is absolutely free. If you want to take root in an expensive imported vaccine, then you have to pay for it from your wallet.
3.1 Types of hepatitis B vaccines:
- Vaccine against hepatitis B recombinant yeast - domestic production (Combiotech Ltd), most often used for mass vaccinations of children.
- Endzheriks-V - produced in Belgium (GlaxoSmithKleine), has 2 varieties that differ in dose (for children and adults).
- Eberbiovak NV - produced jointly by Cuba and Russia, often used for mass vaccinations.
- Н-В-VAX II - is made in the USA, it has several doses.
- Sci-B-Vac - produced in Israel.
- Polivaccine Bubo-Kok (for hepatitis B, whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus), domestic production.
Often parents have a question, is it possible to make the first vaccination with one vaccine, and following the other. It is possible - all registered vaccines are interchangeable, but there is no need to do this without special need.
4. Schemes of vaccination against hepatitis B
Since only one antigen is present in the vaccine, several vaccinations are needed in order to develop immunity (the hepatitis B vaccine does not have strong immunogenicity). There are 2 main vaccination schemes. The first is used in all children who do not belong to risk groups for the incidence of hepatitis. The second is used in children with an increased risk of developing an infection.
The standard scheme for hepatitis B vaccination is as follows - 0-1-6 months. The first vaccination is done in the maternity hospital, the second - by the age of one month, and the third - not earlier than in 5 months (at 6 months of life). The same scheme is used for inoculation of older children and adults (the second injection is made a month after the first, and the third - after 5 months). The basic principle is to adhere to the established interval between vaccinations.
Children from the risk group (the mother is sick or is a carrier of hepatitis B, the mother is not examined during pregnancy, there is a patient with hepatitis in the family, a child from a dysfunctional family) are vaccinated according to a different scheme: 0-1-2-12 months.
What if the pattern is broken? Indeed, vaccination is often contraindicated, for example, due to acute illness. In such cases it is necessary to follow the principle - the minimum time interval between vaccinations is 1 month, the maximum –4 months for the second injection and 4-18 months for the third. In such cases, the immunity is formed full.
After the first injection, immunity develops in about 50% of people, after the second - in 75%, and after the third - in almost 100%. The duration of immune protection has individual characteristics, an average of 8-10 years.
5. Methods of setting vaccination against hepatitis B
All hepatitis B vaccines contain aluminum hydroxide. This substance plays the role of the carrier of the virus antigen. In this regard, all injections should be strictly intramuscularly.
First, with subcutaneous administration, the vaccine composition is adsorbed by fatty tissue and released gradually, which leads to a significant decrease in immunogenicity and to the lack of development of full-fledged immunity. If the dose is mistakenly injected subcutaneously, then the vaccination is not considered complete and must be repeated.
Secondly, the ingress of aluminum hydroxide in the fatty tissue leads to the development of specific inflammation, which can occur for several months. When administered intramuscularly, the inflammatory process also develops, but passes much faster.
Children up to 3 years old are given an injection shot in the lateral surface of the thigh (even in newborns the muscles of this group are well developed), children older than 3 years are recommended to inject the vaccine into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder.
6. Hepatitis B vaccine: contraindications
The introduction of hepatitis B vaccine is contraindicated in such cases:
- Severe allergic complications during the previous administration of this vaccine (angioedema, anaphylactic shock),
- Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine,
- Acute illness or exacerbation of chronic pathology,
- Progressive disease of the nervous system (eg, hydrocephalus, epilepsy),
- Premature babies (weighing up to 2 kg), upon reaching the specified figure, vaccination is carried out according to the standard scheme.
Often parents confuse side effects and post-vaccination reactions, which are an absolutely physiological response of the body to the introduction of foreign protein.
Local vaccine reactions (in the area of the injection): pain, redness, itching, infiltration up to 8 cm.
The injection site does not need to be lubricated with medicines, scratched, rubbed, etc. After 7-10 days everything will heal itself.
General vaccine reactions: short-term violation of general well-being, temperature increase to subfebrile numbers.
As a rule, such symptoms do not last more than 3 days, if the child has a high fever, then the reason is not in the vaccination, perhaps the baby just got sick, which coincided with the vaccination.
Does your child need a hepatitis B vaccine?
Hepatitis B vaccine is given to a child during the first hours after birth. Looking at how hastily doctors seek to vaccinate a baby who has not lived for a day, you ask yourself, what kind of disease is it so terrible that you need to vaccinate immediately? Maybe an epidemic that mows down hundreds of people and therefore it’s impossible to delay the vaccination?
If you go back to the beginning of the article (methods of infection with hepatitis B), then, according to the vaccine creators themselves, it was developed for quite a few cohorts. This is primarily people having a close contact with virus carrier, through medical instrument unscrupulous medical professionals, people leading promiscuous and drug taking intravenously.
As for vaccination against hepatitis B in newborns, they are shown the vaccine only if their parents are at risk or have already been infected. Why, in this case, vaccinate all newborns in a row, regardless of whether their parents are at risk of hepatitis B or even close to this category?
The reason for mass vaccination of newborns is simple. The easiest way to reach these kids. People who really show this vaccine are unlikely to do it. To force an adult, able-bodied person to impose himself it is not clear that no one can. Before compulsory vaccination of adults, fortunately, no country has yet thought of it.
As for the children, then everything is very simple. Enough how to scare parents, and they themselves will carry their children to the vaccine. Some, of course, resist. However, in the case of vaccination against hepatitis B, no one is interested in the opinion of parents. Judge for yourself, do the vaccination to the child only a few hours after his birth.
At this time, parents think about everything with anything, just not about vaccination. In some cases, for permission to vaccinate the baby, they approach a woman who has barely withdrawn from anesthesia. Is she vaccinated? About conscious, balanced decision-making in this situation can not speak. So it turns out that this vaccination is done practically without the permission of the parents, seeing in every newborn baby the potential threat of the spread of the hepatitis B virus.
Instead of limiting the scope of vaccination, defining its boundaries in accordance with the objective threat of infection and the absence of contraindications, health officials are trying to vaccinate all children without exception. However, given the values of a society where money comes first, there’s nothing to be surprised at. Selling drugs brings billions in profits. So why fight it?
Can a newborn baby be vaccinated?This is a special question. Doctors say that only perfectly healthy children can be vaccinated. Therefore, no sane parent would allow a child to be vaccinated if even the slightest deviation in his health is observed. Even if a mother is ready to vote for vaccination with two hands, she is unlikely to vaccinate a child with an upset stomach or signs of allergy. Even a small runny nose is a reason to postpone the vaccine "for later."
We have already written about general contraindications for hepatitis B vaccination. here, but I would like to remind you that this is only official data available in almost any medical brochure. A broader list, when not to be vaccinated, we will try to collect a little later.
In the case of vaccination of children against hepatitis B, the health of the baby, who is only a few hours old, can only be guessed at. By default, the child is considered to be healthy if, at birth, he did not have any pathologies. No one knows about whether the baby is allergic, whether everything is fine with the thymus gland. Therefore, the reaction of his body to a foreign substance is impossible to predict.
And despite the fact that in European countries, before a Hepatitis B vaccination, the patient will find out if he is allergic to yeast. If the doctor, knowing about the presence of allergy, still makes the vaccine, then he faces a trial, a fine and disqualification. In Russia, there is no need to talk about any responsibility of doctors to the patient. The doctor is almost always right. In the case of vaccination, the doctor is not responsible for the consequences.
What is hepatitis
Hepatitis is called a severe inflammatory process in the liver caused by a viral lesion of this organ. The pathogen infects the liver cells, to the extent that some of them die. There is also non-viral hepatitis, but it is much less common.
Патологию на начальном этапе определить бывает трудно, поскольку симптоматика и вовсе напоминает острое респираторное заболевание, а у новорожденных заболевание отличить и вовсе тяжело, поскольку по статистике 90 процентов детей с гепатитом при рождении не имели никаких симптомов заболевания. Гепатит при рождении грозит серьезнейшими осложнениями, а также переходом острой формы заболевания в хроническую, если симптомы вовремя не распознаны, а лечение не начато. Also, the diagnosis is hampered by the physiological jaundice of newborns - the normal process of excretion of large amounts of bilirubin into the blood, which is manifested by yellowing of the skin. Hepatitis jaundice of newborns has nothing to do, only a common symptom. However, according to statistics, in one percent of cases the yellowness of the skin is precisely a sign of hepatitis, which can be fatal in the near future, or the development of liver cirrhosis or carcinoma in the future. To protect babies from such consequences, vaccination is carried out in the maternity hospital.
What hepatitis is there a vaccine for
Different types of diseases are labeled according to the causative agent. Types A, B, and C are best known. In European countries, speaking of a vaccine, the vaccine against hepatitis B is primarily meant. There are several reasons for this:
- Hepatitis A is not a serious illness and practically does not occur in our latitudes. They are sick most often of people in African countries and countries where the environment is very bad, poor sanitation and polluted water,
- Hepatitis C is not taken into account because vaccines against this hepatovirus are not yet available,
- Hepatitis B is the most threatening disease because it can be transmitted through blood. Type B is very difficult, leaving behind irreversible changes in the liver parenchyma. Another important factor is the possibility of transmission of type B virus during childbirth, therefore, in the maternity hospital they prefer to vaccinate the newborn from this type of virus.
"Pros and cons"
Vaccination against hepatitis B is not mandatory. Parents often doubt whether they need an injection with a vaccine, but in order to make an informed decision, you should familiarize yourself with all the pros and cons of early vaccination. Against vaccination are usually those factors that parents are afraid of complications, side effects, and do not consider it necessary to introduce a vaccine from what is not. To some extent, there are logical explanations and fears of parents for the health of babies can be understood. However, doctors advise to pay attention to the problem from the other side:
- The number of people with hepatitis is constantly growing in the world, and in some countries the disease generally takes on the character of an epidemic, so the risk of contracting it is high. To protect your baby from hepatovirus infection can only vaccination,
- the disease may have no symptoms, not be diagnosed on time and go into the chronic or latent stage. In the future, this may lead to the development of cirrhosis or carcinoma, and even with successful treatment of these pathologies, the child remains for the whole life disabled.
- if you become infected with hepatitis at an early age, the disease will go permanently into the chronic stage,
- even if you vaccinate a child for hepatitis, the risk of getting sick remains, but it is minimized,
- A vaccinated child, even if the situation develops unfavorably and is infected with the hepatitis virus, will hurt much more easily, and the disease will not leave serious consequences.
Of course, none of the parents believe that the child in their family will get hepatitis C, because they will protect the crumbs from the first minutes of life. However, there are other possibilities of infection - a child can become infected in hospital, fight, etc. No one is immune from such situations. Therefore, doctors once again insist that parents react responsibly to the issue of vaccinating the baby in the hospital and clearly leaned toward vaccination against hepatitis in the newborn.
Where to put the vaccine
Parents are worried about where they are being vaccinated against hepatitis, will this injection be painful? Newborn babies and toddlers up to the age of three years old should be given vaccination against hepatitis in the thigh. Usually the older children are vaccinated in the shoulder. However, in small children, an injection in the shoulder causes a rather painful reaction. In addition, the femoral muscles are most developed, thus avoiding a negative response to the injection in the child. This may be puffiness, redness and thickening after the vaccine is injected, but on the thigh such effects do not occur.
Can I bathe the baby after vaccination?
The question of bathing after vaccination worries all young moms. Of course, I do not want to deprive the baby of water procedures, but doctors still advise not to bathe the baby for the first three days after vaccination. It is also worth deferring contact with water and when the temperature rises. This adverse reaction is often in newborns, but it does not pose a serious danger. However, it is best to refrain from swimming. The child can wash the hands, wash it, wash face and neck. If the moisture inadvertently gets to the place of vaccination is not worth worrying about - it is recommended to wet the thigh with a towel, but not to wipe it.
The vaccination schedule depends on how necessary the injection is to the newborn, in what environment the child will be, whether the mother has been infected with the hepatovirus. Depending on these conditions, the graph has three variations:
- in the first variant, most of the babies who were born from healthy parents are vaccinated and nothing threatens them around. This scheme is considered the standard and most effective. Side effects of vaccination in these children are rare. The first injection is done in the hospital,
- According to the second, faster scheme, the first vaccination is given in the next day, the second vaccination against hepatitis is given to children in a month, then in two and one year. Inoculation in this way contributes to the development of immunity more quickly than according to the standard scheme, vaccinations of those children who are at risk,
- the third emergency vaccination scheme exists for the rapid formation of the body's defenses, it is used mainly before urgent surgical interventions, if the crumb needs them. The injection can be done in the maternity hospital in the coming days after birth, then a week later, after three weeks, and the last one after one year.
As we see, at the initial stage of each of the schemes, the schedule involves vaccination in the maternity hospital. If it is missed for any reason, further actions can be agreed with the district pediatrician and the schedule adjusted.
What to do if you missed the second vaccination
The subsequent injection is no less important than the first one, because it must be delivered to children up to a year clearly on schedule. Sometimes parents do not deliberately vaccinate against hepatitis in 1 month, after listening to walks with other moms about the dangers of modern vaccines, and sometimes vaccination in infants cannot be done for objective reasons.
According to medical prescriptions, if the second vaccine is missed and more than three months have passed since it was necessary, then the vaccination scheme should be resumed, and three injections are made: one at the time of vaccination, the next four weeks later, and the third six months . In this case, parents can choose a time when to start a vaccination so that subsequent dates do not coincide with an inconvenient time (holidays, parents' seasonal work, etc.). Vaccinated again can be in a normal children's clinic or any medical center where there is a certified vaccine. All data is entered into the vaccination card.
Children are usually immunized according to the standard vaccination schedule. But when risk factors are detected, doctors prefer to follow a second, faster scheme. Risk factors include the following:
- Hepatovirus (carriage) was detected in the mother’s blood
- the mother has hepatitis, or has been infected by it in the last trimester of carrying the baby,
- There is no evidence of a mother being tested for hepatitis.
- father or mother are at risk (lead an asocial lifestyle),
- Among the relatives of the child there are persons suffering from hepatitis.
Then the baby will be given injections according to the schedule 0-1-2-12, which will allow to protect the baby from damage by the hepatovirus.
Complications after vaccination in infants are rare. Statistics records only one case per one hundred thousand vaccinated children, so do not hesitate to get a vaccine against hepatitis B in a newborn. Complications after vaccination may be as follows.
- anaphylactic shock,
- allergic reaction,
- erythema nodosum,
- spots like urticaria.
Vaccine manufacturers at this stage exclude all possible preservatives and additional substances from the vaccine, so their complications are minimized.
What is a vaccine
Hepatitis vaccines are a sterile suspension, which includes the hepatitis virus, grown in a special nutrient medium, and then killed with the help of formaldehyde (cell poisoning).
Such viruses are grown in special laboratories. They contribute to the emergence of resistant immunity to the disease. At the same time, vaccines do not cause disease in humans. Re-drug is administered to enhance the immune response.
In some countries, the hepatitis A or B vaccination procedure is not included in the vaccination schedule, and can be waived. But doctors still recommend vaccinating, as recently the number of infected people has increased dramatically.
The risk of getting an infection increases in the following cases:
- One family member is infected with the disease.
- Rest is planned in hot countries where the disease is spreading rapidly.
- A virus was found in the mother’s bloodstream, and infection occurred during pregnancy.
- Parents of the newborn use drugs.
- In the village where the family lives, there is an outbreak of the disease.
How to vaccinate
There is no separate hepatitis A vaccination scheme. Doctors recommend vaccinating a child against this disease in a year, and revaccination is carried out in 6 - 18 months, according to the instructions for the drug.
Hepatitis B vaccination scheme:
- The standard scheme provides for the introduction of a vaccine in 1, 3, 6 months.
- If the mother is infected with hepatitis B, the primary vaccination is carried out immediately after the birth of the baby, then the vaccine is administered in a month, in half a year and in a year.
- If necessary, surgery, in order to develop immunity quickly, the drug is administered immediately after birth, then on days 7 and 21 of life. Revaccination is carried out when the baby is one year old.
Between the first and second vaccinations, you can increase the interval by 4 months. When the vaccine is administered for the third time, this period ranges from 4 to 18 months. If you increase it, the immunity is not produced.
The vaccine is injected into the muscle on the outside of the thigh. At the same time, it completely enters the bloodstream, allowing the body to provide complete immune protection. Children over three years old and adults are injected into the shoulder.
It is not recommended to inject the vaccine into the buttock, because in this case the drug is delivered to the fatty layer, which will worsen its absorbability and increase the risk of negative reactions.
With subcutaneous administration of the drug, the risk of side effects, in the form of redness and compaction at the injection site increases.
Reaction to vaccination in adults
Adults tolerate vaccination more easily than children. In very rare cases, they have:
- Seal at the injection site.
- Weakness and indisposition.
- Abdominal pain.
- Pain in the joints.
- Nausea and upset stool.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
- Pre-unconscious states.
- Increased body temperature.
How to avoid a negative reaction to vaccination
In order for vaccination measures to pass without consequences, you must adhere to the following rules:
- In order to avoid allergic reactions, some doctors recommend giving antihistamines to your baby three days before vaccination.
- Before visiting the hospital, you need to explain to the child what vaccination is and its need. Tell about short-term pain.
- Collect all the information about the vaccine, which will enter, clarify contraindications and ask all your questions to the doctor.
- Before vaccination, the doctor must conduct an inspection. In the presence of symptoms of colds, the drug is not recommended, because it increases the risk of adverse reactions.
- Parents should keep themselves in their hands, not to worry and in no case shout at the child, as he sensitively reacts to their condition.
- During vaccination, it is necessary to maintain eye contact with children. You need to speak with them in a soft, calm voice.
- After vaccination, parents are recommended to spend some time with the child under the supervision of a doctor. Despite the fact that anaphylactic reactions occur rarely, when they appear the baby will need the help of a doctor.
What to do if there is a negative reaction
In the event that the temperature has risen more than 38.5 degrees, the baby feels unwell and capricious it is necessary to give him an antipyretic drug based on paracetamol or ibuprofen.
They also use mechanical methods of cooling, wiping the baby with a towel moistened with warm water (without adding alcohol or vinegar). If the temperature remains high on the fourth day after vaccination, then you should consult a doctor.
If in the presence of fever the child has convulsions, or he has started to lose consciousness, you should immediately seek medical help.
When an edema (up to 5 cm) or a painful hardening (up to 2 cm) appears at the injection site, there is no need to use medical ointments or lotions. The affected area is not recommended to wet, as this may enhance the reaction. If the size of the seal exceeds the norm, or it does not disappear on its own within a week, you should consult a doctor. This may indicate that the drug has been injected incorrectly, or an infection has been reported. You may need surgery.
If itching, runny nose or urticaria occur, which indicate an allergic reaction, an antihistamine should be given to the baby (Fenistil, Suprastin, Diazolin). It should be taken according to the instructions and recommendations of the pediatrician.
If the side effects of the digestive system appear for a long time and cause discomfort in the baby, you can use sorbents (Smektu, Activated carbon, Enterosgel). In the event that the symptoms do not disappear, but increase, you should consult with your doctor.
If, as a result of vaccination against hepatitis A or B, there are side effects from the nervous system (impaired muscle tone, convulsions), you should consult a neurologist and an epileptologist for advice.
The mechanism of action of the vaccine is sufficiently studied, but in rare cases, the complications after vaccination against hepatitis are of the following form:
- The development of severe complications - angioedema (acute allergic reaction caused by repeated contact with the allergen).
- Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle).
- Arthritis (inflammation of the joints).
- Glomerulonephritis (kidney disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the renal glomeruli).
- Myalgia (muscle pain resulting from increased tone).
- Neuropathy (inflammation of the nerves).
- Exacerbation of chronic diseases.
In what cases may complications arise.
The appearance of complications is affected by various factors:
- The state of the immune system. If a person has congenital or chronic diseases that are periodically exacerbated, the risk of complications increases.
- Violation of the conditions of vaccine storage and transportation. Drugs should be stored at a temperature of + 2 to +8 degrees in a special refrigerator. Transport vaccines in special containers. When overheating or freezing drugs, they lose their properties, which can trigger the development of all sorts of complications.
- Non-compliance with the rules and techniques of vaccine entry. In this case, the risk of a local reaction increases.
What is the probability of death from this disease?
With virus A, deaths are very rare, and occur only during lightning development of the process. In this case, the patient develops acute inflammation of the liver cells, followed by necrosis and the development of liver failure.
In children under one year of age, the infection is very difficult. The disease is accompanied by complications, and causes negative consequences.
Hepatitis B is more dangerous because it can cause cirrhosis or cancer. Almost 90% of children infected with this infection, the disease becomes chronic. In addition, it often gives complications in the form of myocarditis, glomerulonephritis or arthralgia. Hepatitis B vaccine and its adverse reactions are not as dangerous as the disease itself.
Caution - danger!
Hepatitis B can become infected not only after a year, but also newborns. The virus infects the liver and can proceed openly or in a latent form, causing cirrhosis of the liver. In latent form, the disease provokes liver cancer. Many mommies ask where a newborn baby can get jaundice?
The disease is transmitted in several ways:
- at birth from mom,
- through blood, by transfusion,
- при использовании многоразовых шприцев или медицинских инструментов, которые плохо обработали,
- в быту при тесном контакте с инфицированным.
Ребенок может заразиться в больнице или от мамы, которая является скрытым носителем. Если у мамочки до родов не было вакцинации, то она может быть заражена.
Во время беременности анализы на это заболевание делают не во всех регионах. Hence, there are so many children who are born already infected and in the future their quality of life is greatly reduced.
Hepatitis B is spreading faster than A form, which can only get to the baby through blood transfusions. It is believed that a newborn baby may be infected from the mother along with milk, but this fact has not been proven. To vaccinate a baby in a maternity hospital, before his contact with the outside world, means to save his life in the first year of life.
Features of the disease
Hepatitis enters the body of the child and settles in the liver. Penetrating into the cells of the liver, it leaves its core in them. The immune system begins to perceive the liver cells as something foreign and will fight against them.
The younger the child, the worse his immunity is afraid of bacteria and viruses. Well, if the baby has hepatitis in an open form (jaundice), it is worse when hidden. In a child of the first year of life, the probability of becoming infected is higher, and the disease can only be prevented by vaccination.
What vaccines are used to vaccinate a baby
Vaccination of a newborn baby against hepatitis B is free. The first injection will be made to the child in the hospital, the second is performed at 3 months and the last at 6 months. This is the traditional scheme of grafting a healthy baby against the disease.
Vaccination is carried out by imported and domestic drugs. The main thing is that the vaccine is entered in the register of the national calendar in the region where the baby was born.
Among the most popular is the vaccination drugs:
- Recombinant liquid hepatitis B vaccine is the most popular domestic one. Her mass is used in hospitals and maternity hospitals of Russia.
- Endzheriks In - the Belgian drug. Make a dosage of 10 and 20 mg. Children injected less than 18 years.
- Ebirbiovac - Cuba produces vaccine together with Russia. In our clinics, vaccination with this drug is often used.
- Evuks B - produced jointly by Korea and France. It has fewer side effects. In clinics are used extremely rarely.
- Bubo-M is an American combination vaccine, popular in private clinics in Russia. Children do for a fee.
The vaccine against hepatitis for children can be combined or mono-component. The child is usually put the one that bought the regional Ministry of Health. Traditionally, these are domestic drugs, as their price is lower. And the composition and method of use for all vaccines is not much different. Therefore, any injection made in the maternity hospital crumbs is safe and will help the baby acquire immunity for 20 years. The main thing is to comply with the scheme and not to delay the second and third injection.
Different vaccination scheme for children who are at risk. So babies need to vaccinate hepatitis 4 steps. The first is 12 hours after birth, the second is at 1 month, then at two and a year. So, efficiency increases and the baby will be protected.
There are situations when, after discharge from the maternity hospital, the child leaves with his parents in another region. Mom is worried, is it possible to continue the scheme for children with various vaccines? All drugs are similar, therefore interchangeable. But if there is no special need, it is worth finishing the scheme with one drug.
Combining hepatitis B with other vaccines is not recommended. The exceptions are complex DTP and poliomyelitis. They are traditionally put in polyclinics together. It is impossible to combine the injection with a BCG vaccination. And if the need arose, for reasons of medical inquiries or personal factors, it is better to use the Bubo-M combination vaccine. The price of injections in large cities starts from 13 000 r.
There are cases when mom did not manage to put the baby an injection against hepatitis immediately after birth, and upon arrival home, it turned out that the child is at risk. It is necessary to make the drug according to the accelerated scheme 0-1-2-12, and to increase the efficiency, immunoglobulin is additionally found. It will increase the immunity of the baby and help cope with possible infection.
General information about hepatitis
Hepatitis B is a disease of viral etiology, caused by a pathogen with characteristic hepatotropic qualities. The mode of transmission is blood and body fluids. Viral hepatitis leads to degenerative processes in the liver tissues and subsequently provokes cirrhosis or cancer. It is highly resistant to the effects of the environment. It is practically not destroyed in the processes of freezing, boiling, in an acidic environment, at low and high temperatures. Symptoms of the disease:
- dark urine
- light color feces,
- yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin,
- low-grade fever.
Vaccination baby: whether to do?
Jaundice in newborns may be the body's response to the vaccine.
Vaccination of infants makes it possible to reduce the risk of infection with viral hepatitis due to contact with carriers of the infection. But is everything so harmless? The vaccine that forms the immune response from hepatitis B is young, so it could not be well researched over generations. Constantly there are discussions about the relationship of vaccinations and disorders in the functions of the immune system - autoimmune diseases. One of the reactions to hepatitis vaccination in a newborn may be a jaundiced condition, which may resemble physiological jaundice, but in a more complex form. For many reasons, more and more parents are not indifferent to vaccination, speaking in favor and against this procedure.
Risks of infection of the newborn
Due to the fact that the newborn is vaccinated in the first hours after birth, immunity against hepatitis begins to form almost immediately. Despite the many contradictions, there are a number of risks justifying the vaccination of infants:
- the risk of infection of the newborn child from the mother who carries the virus,
- a blood transfusion procedure,
- presence in the family of the carrier of hepatitis B,
- if necessary, medical manipulations,
- if necessary, surgery.
What type of hepatitis carriers are vaccinated baby?
Vaccination should protect against hepatitis B.
Why is it vaccinated to babies against the hepatitis B virus, because there are several types of hepatitis? Currently, this disease is the most common form of hepatitis, the number of infections that are constantly increasing. The virus is transmitted through the blood from the carrier and may not manifest itself for a long time, especially in young children. The duration of the incubation period takes a long time before the disease makes itself felt. Therefore, in order to protect the life of the baby, they are being vaccinated against hepatitis in the first days and months of life. Hepatitis vaccine was introduced by the World Health Organization into the mandatory vaccination schedule.
Hepatitis B vaccine schedule for newborns
There are 3 main schemes for which babies are vaccinated:
- Compliance with the vaccination interval plays a very important role in the formation of immunity.
The standard scheme (included in the schedule of vaccination against hepatitis newborn). According to this scheme, a newborn baby is vaccinated against hepatitis during the first day of birth, the next dose is given in a month, and the third in 6 months.
It is important to know that one vaccine does not form a good immunity to hepatitis. For the formation of long-term immunity, vaccination consists of 3 times with strict adherence to acceptable intervals. If for some reason the first vaccine was not introduced in the maternity hospital, the first vaccine against hepatitis is done in 1 month or in 3 months with further observance of vaccination intervals. The second vaccine should be administered one month after the first, and the third at the age of 12 months.
Is there a reaction to a vaccine?
Often, children have a quick reaction to vaccination.
Vaccination is tolerated by newborns fairly easily without major complications. Often there is a local reaction to the vaccine against hepatitis in the form of redness. Side effects of vaccination can often manifest themselves in the form of the following symptoms:
- redness in the injection area - the body’s response is allergic to the vaccine component - aluminum hydroxide (according to statistics, 10–20% of babies),
- slight weakness and sweating,
- headache, provoking whims for 1-2 days,
- weakening of the stool
- increase in body temperature (observed in 1–5% of children),
- itching at the injection site.
Side effects and effects of vaccination
In rare cases, babies have a reaction to the vaccine.
WHO research has proven that vaccination against hepatitis does not lead to neurological pathologies in children and does not strengthen the existing ones. Multiple myths about the dangers of vaccines are not justified and can not put parents in doubt to vaccinate a newborn or not. Complications are observed only in cases of ignoring contraindications. The rarest post-vaccination reactions that occur with a frequency of 1 per 100,000 vaccinated children can be:
- exacerbation of allergic reactions,
- erythema nodosum,
- anaphylactic shock.
The debate about the toxic effects of the vaccine is not justified. Today, manufacturers are trying to minimize the dosage of preservatives, improve the composition in order to minimize the adverse effect of harmful substances on the body. They are included in the minimum acceptable doses. Vaccinations consist of 3 main components: