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Gardnerella vaginalis: description of the pathogen and diseases caused

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Gardnerella vaginalis (Gardnerella vaginalis) is a bacterium that is a well-studied component of the microflora of the female urogenital system, which is the most common cause of the development of bacterial vaginitis and bacvaginosis.

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In most cases, the infection in men is asymptomatic in the form of carriage, less often a microbe causes an inflammatory process in the urethra, bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles.

The microbe was first discovered in 1955, it was called Haemophilus vaginalis, as the nonspecific causative agent of vaginitis in women. Gradually, the nomenclature changed, as a result, medicine came to a modern name.

G. vaginalis is a fixed optional anaerobic microorganism, very sensitive to environmental conditions.

Gardnerella is detected in 9 out of 10 women with symptoms of vaginitis. Often, the microorganism is determined in persons who do not have any signs of inflammation.

The frequency of its detection in men with symptoms of lower lesions of the urogenital system ranges from 0.2 to 38%. Without the predisposing factors, G. vaginalis in men usually does not lead to an inflammatory process.

1. Predisposing factors

  1. 1 Weakening of immunity (as a result of chronic diseases, exposure to stress factors).
  2. 2 Presence of a history of sexually transmitted infections, infections of the organs of the urinary system.
  3. 3 A large number of sexual partners, previously the beginning of sexual activity.
  4. 4 Refusal of barrier contraception.

2. Ways of infection

The only way to transmit Gardnerella vaginalis is sexual, during unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner. Most often, a man does not know about the presence of the pathogen in his body due to the absence of any clinical manifestations.

Thus, asymptomatic carriage in men contributes to the wide distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis among women.

3. Main symptoms

It is important to understand that gardnerella does not always lead to illness and is often found in quite healthy men.

Gardnerella vaginalis in men can be the cause of the following pathologies:

  1. 1 Urethritis, which is characterized by complaints of pain, cramps and burning during urination, itching, increased urge, gray-mucous or mucopurulent discharge and redness of the external opening of the urethra. Detachable usually has an unpleasant, "fish" smell. The general condition suffers a little.
  2. 2 Balanoposthitis (balanitis) - inflammation of the glans penis and the foreskin, characterized by their redness, the appearance of red spots, erosion with light and mucopurulent discharge. The smell can be unpleasant. The foreskin and head swell, sex and urination are painful.
  3. 3 Cystitis in men is extremely rare and is characterized by increased urging, the appearance of false urge, pain in the bladder, cutting and burning during urination, a feeling of incomplete emptying.

4. Complicated Current

Complications of Gardnerella are rare, occur on the background of pronounced immunodeficiency.

  1. 1 In case of late treatment, the infection can spread to the nearest structures - seminal vesicles, prostate.
  2. 2 When bacteria migrate up the urinary tract, pyelonephritis develops. The main symptoms are pronounced fever (up to 39 ° C), chills, dull intense back pain, frequent urge to urinate, turbidity and impurities in the urine can be determined.
  3. 3 Against the background of pronounced immunodeficiency, Gardnerella can lead to the development of sepsis, the formation of purulent abscesses in other organs. This happens very rarely.

5. Symptoms in a sexual partner

It is necessary to pay for the following signs of infection in a female sexual partner:

  1. 1 Foul-smelling (heavy, fishy smell) abundant secretions from the genital tract.
  2. 2 Abundant discharge has a grayish-white or grayish-yellow hue.
  3. 3 After sex, these symptoms worsen.
  4. 4 Rarely can there be pain and a burning sensation in the vagina at rest and during sex.

However, most often the woman has no obvious symptoms of the disease.

6. Survey

If the above-described symptoms appear on the urogenital organs, as well as in case of suspected Gardnerellosis, the consultation of a urologist is obligatory. It is impossible to determine independently the cause of the inflammatory process, and self-treatment can lead to undesirable consequences.

The urologist will clarify the symptoms of the disease in the man and his sexual partner, after the conversation, he will perform an examination and prescribe a number of laboratory tests.

6.1. Laboratory diagnosis

In men with symptoms of inflammation, a comprehensive examination of the main genital infections (ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydia, gonococcus, trichomoniasis, etc.) is mandatory. The association of several microorganisms is often observed (mycoplasma + ureaplasma + gardnerella, mycoplasma + chlamydia).

Laboratory diagnosis will include:

  1. 1 A general smear on the flora of the urethra (will show whether there is inflammation in the urethra, will allow to detect Trichomonas, gonococci).
  2. 2 Scraping for PCR. PCR makes it possible to identify the main STIs, as well as the DNA of mycoplasmas, Gardnerella vaginalis and fungi of the genus Candida, which do not belong to this group of diseases, but are transmitted from one sexual partner to another.
  3. 3 To identify Gardnerell in men, a scraping of the urethra is used, the first portion of urine, semen.
  4. 4 Bakposev material with the definition of sensitivity to the main antibiotics (including metronidazole, tinidazole). Cultivation of Gardnerella on a nutrient medium can take about 7 days. The method is rarely used.

7. Treatment regimens

Men with confirmed Gardnerellosis are prescribed a combination of systemic antibiotics (in pill form) and topical therapy (douching with antiseptic solutions). Treatment is desirable to carry out and sexual partner.

It is important to remember! The fact of the presence of Gardnerell in the test results (including DNA detection by PCR) is not an indication for treatment! Therapy is necessary only if there are symptoms of inflammation (during examination, in a general smear, urinalysis, and so on).

To better understand this, we give an example. Streptococci and staphylococci constantly live on our skin, but only in a small number of people they provoke the formation of boils, pustules, vesicles. This does not mean that it is necessary to treat any person in whom these bacteria are detected.

7.1. Antibacterial therapy

For the treatment of inflammatory diseases in men caused by Gardnerella vaginalis, systemic antibiotics can be used: metronidazole (drugs with the following trade names: Metrogil, Trichopol, Flagil, Klion), tinidazole, clindamycin (linkosamide drug). Their use inside and in the form of injections is justified in case of cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis, infection complications.

Schemes for their use:

  1. 1 Metronidazole tablets, injections - 500 mg twice a day, the duration of the course is 7 days.
  2. 2 Tinidazole - 2 g (4 tablets at a time) - the duration of the course is 2 days.
  3. 3 Clindamycin - 150 mg capsules, 1 capsule 3-4 times a day at regular intervals, the course - 7 days.

Balanoposthitis does not require the mandatory use of tablets, it can be treated topically with the help of ointments, creams and gels based on the same components (Metrogil gel and other drugs).

7.3. Therapeutic and protective regime

  1. 1 Refusal of sexual intercourse at the time of treatment.
  2. 2 Limiting stress, overwork, excessive physical exertion. Moderate physical activity is allowed.
  3. 3 Refusal to go to the bath, sauna and other thermal procedures.
  4. 4 Diet with the exception of alcohol, spicy, pickled and smoked food.

In men, early infection responds well to treatment (especially when determining the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics using bakposeva).

  1. 1 Re-examination - two weeks after the end of treatment.
  2. 2 It is possible to return the infection after reinfection during sex, so it is important to simultaneously undergo treatment and sexual partner.

Gardnerella Vaginalis: transmission paths that trigger the development of pathology factors

Some doctors are inclined to believe that it is sexually transmitted. However, in this case, it remains an open question about the presence of these bacteria in a small amount in the vagina of girls and virgin girls. Therefore, experts believe that this disease can be safely attributed to polietiologicheskie.

The appearance of pathological concentrations of Gardnerella vaginalis is promoted by the following factors:

  • promiscuity, especially without the use of proper protective measures (condoms),
  • associated sexually transmitted diseases (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.),
  • various therapeutic and diagnostic intravaginal manipulations (douching, especially if it is therapeutically unfounded, colposcopy, etc.),
  • abortions,
  • taking drugs that impair the work of local immunity (corticosteroids, antibiotics and fungicides, including local action in the form of ointments and suppositories, cytotoxic drugs, chemotherapy),
  • extragenital diseases that adversely affect the immune system,
  • wrong diet with a predominance of too sweet dishes and a shortage of fermented milk products,
  • use of local spermicides,
  • hygienic use of gaskets, tampons, intimate products with too high content of synthetic perfume fragrances and allergens,
  • wearing tight linen with synthetic gusset,
  • hormonal disorders, caused by natural causes (pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding), diseases or taking appropriate medications,
  • chronic fatigue, emotional stress and exhaustion,
  • diseases and conditions involving a violation of the microflora of the digestive and urinary tract,
  • malformations and anatomical features of the structure of the vagina,
  • insufficient personal hygiene,
  • foreign bodies in the vagina and uterus (spirals, caps, etc.).

Infection of Gardnerella vaginal does not occur through sexual contact. However, the development of this disease is closely related to the characteristics of sexual relationships. The risk of bacterial vaginosis increases with early onset of sexual activity, the presence of a large number of sexual partners, a high frequency of urogenital, rectogenital sex, etc.

Gardnerella infection: symptomatology in women, diagnostic methods, possible complications

Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella are not specific. Many sexually transmitted diseases (for example, chlamydia, trichomoniasis) can occur under the mask of gardnerellosis. The incubation period of infection is from 3 to 10 days, but on average - a week.

Symptoms characteristic of pathology are:

  • quite abundant, sometimes foamy vaginal discharge, in the initial stages of the disease they are homogeneous, gray-white in color, but later acquire a thicker consistency and yellowish tint,

Sometimes vaginosis is accompanied by a cheesy discharge, which can cause erroneous self-diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis.

  • characteristic unpleasant smell of stale fish, it increases after sex, during menstruation, after washing with soap, such a sign is caused by the breakdown of amino acids produced by anaerobic cardnerellas,
  • itching and burning, but only a third of women with bacterial vaginosis complain of these symptoms.

In 24–32% of the weaker sex, Gardnerella infection is accompanied by hidden clinical manifestations, which increases the risk of late diagnosis and complications.

The emergence of an unpleasant "fishy" odor from the vagina in combination with copious secretions serves as a reason to consult a gynecologist.

The diagnostic criteria for Gardnerella are:

  • plaque that evenly covers the mucous membrane of the vagina and external genital organs, and the pathophysiological signs of the inflammatory process are extremely rare,
  • pH values ​​above 4.5 after carrying out the pH-metry separated by the vaginal epithelium,
  • A positive result of the aminotest is one of the methods of express diagnostics, which is carried out by mixing a vaginal smear with a 10% solution of potassium hydroxide on a glass slide, in the presence of gardnerella there is a strong smell of rotten fish,
  • detection of cells characteristic of bacterial vaginosis after microscopy of a Gram-stained vaginal smear.

Instrumental methods of detecting the disease complement the patient's anamnesis and complaints. Gardnerella infection requires differential diagnosis with other urogenital pathologies caused by gonococcus, trichomonas, chlamydia, and opportunistic microorganisms. To do this, prescribe PCR analyzes to detect the DNA of bacteria.

Without appropriate treatment (and sometimes on the background of drug therapy), gardnerellosis is prone to chronic relapsing course. So, six months after the first episode, symptoms of bacterial vaginosis reappear in a third of patients, and within a year in 50–70% of women. Such a violation of the composition of the physiological microflora of the vagina often leads to persistent recurrent candidiasis and other lesions of the urogenital tract. Sometimes gardnerella is found in the bladder in the process of identifying the causes of cystitis.

In recent years, it has been reported that anaerobic pathogens of bacterial vaginosis secrete nitrosamines. They serve as carcinogenesis coenzymes and can cause dysplastic and dystrophic processes in the cervix. They, in turn, can cause a variety of pathologies, including malignant transformations of cells.

Gardnerellosis in women: features of the course and therapy during pregnancy, manifestations of the disease in men

Often bacterial vaginosis, triggered by bacteria of the genus Gardnerella, occurs during pregnancy. As a rule, this is due to concomitant changes in hormonal balance. For early detection of pathology, regular gynecological examination is required, especially for women from the risk group (with previous or concomitant sexually transmitted infections, chronic inflammatory lesions of the urogenital system, etc.)

But today a clear link has been established between the development of a similar disease and infertility, an unfavorable outcome of pregnancy, the threat of miscarriage, premature birth. In addition, in the absence of therapy, gardnerellosis is dangerous by early discharge of amniotic fluid, intrauterine infection of the fetus, and various inflammatory lesions of the uterus in the afterbirth period.

Therefore, with the appearance of secretions of characteristic consistency and with a specific smell, it is necessary to urgently begin therapy. Most drugs used to treat bacterial vaginosis are contraindicated in the first trimester. Therefore, at this stage, even doctors recommend using folk remedies.

Starting from the second trimester, women with Gardnerellosis are treated with:

  • Clindamycin (Dalatsin, Clindacin) in the form of a cream or suppository of 5 g or one piece, respectively, overnight for 3 - 5 days,
  • Metronidazole (Metrogil, Metrovagin, Trichopol, Trichosept, Flagil) cream (0.75%), candles - 2 times a day, intravaginal or 0.5 g tablets twice a day, the course of therapy - 5-7 days.

In men, gardnerellosis is usually asymptomatic. As a rule, representatives of the stronger sex are carriers of infection. However, when immunity is weakened as a result of any disease or medication, there is a risk of developing bacterial urethritis (inflammation of the urinary canal) or balanoposthitis (lesion of the penis head, foreskin).

Such pathologies manifest as burning during urination, discharge with an unpleasant smell from the urethra. Often note the appearance of a grayish-white sticky plaque on the head of the penis, redness and mild swelling of the skin in the foreskin.

The treatment of urogenital gardnerella disease in men is the same as in women. In this case, the treatment must be mandatory for both sexual partners.

How to treat Gardnerella: drug and alternative therapy, restoration of local immunity, methods of prevention

Anaerobic pathogens of bacterial vaginosis have a high sensitivity to various antibacterial drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones, penicillins (but only in combination with clavulanic acid), macrolides. Tetracycline antibiotics (for example, Minocycline) are less active against Gardnerella. However, most experts believe that the use of potent antimicrobial agents for the treatment of uncomplicated vaginosis is unjustified.

Therefore, the first-line drugs are:

  • Nitroimidazoles (Metronidazole, Ornidazole, Tinidazole). They are used internally, intravaginally in women and externally topically in men. Dosage and duration of treatment is determined individually. As a rule, take metronidazole (or its analogues under other trade names) 2.0 g once or 0.5 g twice a day for a week.Ornidazole drink 0.5 g twice a day for 5 days, Tinidazole - 2.0 g once. Preparations of this group in the form of candles or ointments are used twice a day for 5 days.
  • Linkosamides. Of the medications of this class Clindamycin is most effective. It is applied topically (applied to the head of the penis or injected into the vagina) once a day at night for 6 days. Oral intake of 0.3 g twice a day for a week is possible.

Additionally, doctors emphasize that metronidazole is absolutely incompatible with alcohol. Therefore, it is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol for the entire duration of treatment and within 24 hours after its termination. Creams and candles with clindamycin can damage the latex from which condoms and vaginal diaphragms are made. Therefore, during therapy with this drug, it is better to refuse sex life (sexual contact with gardnerelle without a condom can aggravate the course of the disease).

Some patients prefer to treat bacterial vaginosis and urethritis using alternative medicine methods.

Traditional healers recommend the following recipes:

  • Pour 3 tbsp. dry herb celandine liter of boiling water, squeeze a few cloves of garlic, 3 - 4 hours to insist, strain and use for douching.
  • Mince the needles of pine and juniper through a meat grinder (take 1: 1 ratio), squeeze the juice out of the resulting gruel, moisten it with a regular tampon and put it into the vagina overnight. To improve the effectiveness of treatment alternate with a gauze or cotton swab dipped in a mixture of onion and horseradish juice. The course of therapy lasts 12 days.
  • Mix 10 g of lavender grass, cherry flowers and chernobylnik, 20 g of calendula grass, sage and dried saplings, oak bark, birch leaves, 30 g of chamomile flowers. Two tablespoons of the mixture pour a liter of hot water, wrap the dishes with a towel, leave for 2 - 3 hours, strain and douche overnight for 2 weeks.
  • Buy in a pharmacy tincture of yarrow and eucalyptus, mix and drink 25 drops in 50 ml of water three times a day on an empty stomach.
  • Mix in equal proportion mistletoe and yarrow grass. A couple of spoons brew half a liter of boiling water, insist night and strain. Can be used for douching or taken orally for 1 tbsp. three times a day.
  • Trichopol pill grind into powder, add a teaspoon of honey and the same onion gruel. The resulting mass is applied to the swab and injected into the vagina overnight. Alternate with tampons with calendula ointment (available at the pharmacy).
  • A tablespoon of tansy baskets is poured with a glass of boiling water, stewed in a water bath for 15 minutes, cooled to room temperature and drain. Use solution for douching.
  • Mix in equal proportions of black poplar buds, calendula and chamomile flowers, eucalyptus leaves and bird cherry. Take 2 - 3 tbsp., Pour a liter of boiling water, insist the night and strain. First, make this solution syringing, then insert a tampon with propolis ointment on a lanolin basis into the vagina (if it is not in the pharmacy, you must mix 10 g of crushed propolis and melted lanolin). The duration of treatment is 2 weeks. In parallel, you can drink a decoction of wormwood.
  • A tablespoon of cherry fruit pour 300 ml of boiling water, boil on low heat for 20 minutes, cool and strain. Drink 1/3 thrice a day for half an hour before meals. This solution can also be used for douching.
  • Men for hygiene of the penis are recommended such composition: half a liter of chamomile decoction, 1 tbsp. soda, 5 drops of potassium permanganate and 2 drops of iodine.

To avoid chronic and recurrent Gardnerella disease, the effectiveness of therapy should be monitored using laboratory tests.

However, the treatment does not guarantee re-infection. Its likelihood increases, if not exclude provoking risk factors. It is possible to increase the activity of local immunity with the help of preparations intended to restore the normal composition of the microflora of the vagina. They are used in the form of suppositories, and in the form of tablets.

In order not to face the problem of how to treat Gardnerella, it is better to engage in the prevention of infection in a timely manner. It is necessary to minimize the wearing of close synthetic linen and clothing, especially in the hot season. Daily and sanitary pads should be changed at least once every three hours. You should also avoid too frequent and unnecessary douching. In addition, you must follow the rules of safe sex and use condoms.

The causes of the appearance of pathology in men

Despite the fact that Gardnerella vaginalis is on the mucous in both sexes, in men the bacteria are supplanted by other species that live in these same places. The development of the disease begins after a malfunction of the body. In addition to transmission during sexual intercourse, there are also other reasons for the increase in the number of microorganisms:

  • reduced immunity
  • inflammation of the genitourinary system,
  • more number of sexual partners
  • violation of the normal intestinal microflora,
  • hormonal changes.

Occasionally, Gardnerella in men appears after the use of intimate hygiene. They disturb the balance of microflora and contribute to an increase in bacteria. The causes of Gardnerella in men can be covered in the absence of personal hygiene.

Important! The man's body controls the number of Gardnerella independently, therefore, cases of its manifestation are rare.

Symptoms and treatment of Gardnerella in men are different. First, there is a slippery coating on the coronary sulcus and "fish" smell. Erythema of the head, as well as the foreskin, is mild. In the urethra, inflammation begins, when urinating a burning sensation is felt, cramps.

If the patient has vesiculitis or prostatitis, then the symptoms of these pathologies join Gardnerellosis (there is a photo in this article) after the bacteria begin to spread through the urinary system. Bacteria are dangerous because they often provoke complications.

The most serious are abscesses, sepsis. In addition to them, there may be other complications than the dangerous Gardnerella. It depends on the propagation speed of the bacteria.

In carriers of gardnerella vaginalis, the disease is hidden, and there are almost no signs of illness. Therefore, another partner gets a certain “portion” of bacteria during sexual intercourse. If the pathogens cause the disease, the first symptoms will appear 7 days after infection. First of all, the head of the penis and the mucosa will become inflamed.

Gardnerella urethritis in men usually begins to develop due to existing bacteria - mycoplasma, ureaplasma, chlamydia. Their numbers will also increase. If the treatment of Gardnerella in men is not started on time, the inflammation can also affect other internal organs:

  • prostatitis,
  • pyelonephritis, which is manifested by muscle pain, fever,
  • epidimitis is accompanied by pain in the testicle.

Together with the main causative agent of the disease, ureaplasma and other viruses often appear. Against gardnerelleza begins cystitis. The symptoms of the inflammatory process are greatly exacerbated. Urination becomes an even more painful procedure.

Attention! The severity and duration of the course of Gardnerella is due to the structure of the male reproductive system, which is initially able to extinguish the reproduction of bacteria and stop further inflammation.

Diagnosis of the disease

During the diagnosis of the disease, an external examination is done first. Then tests are performed for the presence (or absence) of all venereal ailments, pcr-diagnostics are performed. Analyzed the allocation and recorded, if they found Prevotella.

Gardnerella symptoms are noted in men, the condition of the prostate gland is checked, an ultrasound examination is performed. Under the microscope, prostate secretion is checked. If there is a suspicion of prostatitis, then drugs for its treatment (for example, doxycycline) are included in the general scheme.

Gardnerella Treatment

The disease is more common in women, and the male gender can also become infected. His bacteria usually cause various inflammations. Therapy is needed for both sexual partners. Sometimes men do not need therapy, since the urinogenital system independently washes out microorganisms in a few days.

Medicines are selected on an individual basis and pills are first taken (for example, macmorrhos). If the treatment of Gardnerella in men is ineffective, then droppers, injections and installations are additionally prescribed. The course of treatment is 3-6 weeks. During this period, a man should refrain from sexual intercourse, alcohol and smoking. Spicy and spicy foods and all products that irritate the digestive tract are excluded from the diet.

Treatment gardnerelleza - a comprehensive, aimed at the destruction of bacteria. An important factor is the increase in immunity. The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is very high, so different drugs are used:

  • immunomodulatory agents with antiviral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory effect,
  • antibiotics
  • antiseptics,
  • preparations that restore the intestinal microflora,
  • antiallergic drugs
  • vitamins.

During the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in men, they need to avoid physical exertion and direct sunlight. Also contraindicated bath and sauna. A man should avoid stress, anxiety and feelings. If the medication in the form of tablets is undesirable, then ointment from gardnerelleza Metrogil or Dalatsin is prescribed. They are based on antibacterial agents.

Antibiotics are prescribed if there is no improvement in the condition after the first course of Gardnerella treatment. These drugs violate the intestinal microflora, therefore, supplemented by probiotics. The treatment regimen includes Ornidazole from Gardnerella, Tinidazole, Vilprafen and other means.

The disappearance of signs of Gardnerella in men does not indicate a cure, so after the course of therapy a number of tests are prescribed. And you need to take them several times.

Home treatment can be carried out only on the recommendations of the doctor. Otherwise, independent attempts will lead to the progression of pathology or additional complications. Often, gardnerellosis in men goes away independently.

Features of the disease

Gardnerellosis is an infectious disease that does not occur on men alone.

The name of the disease comes from the name of the bacterium that causes it - Gardnerella. In medicine, there is no such diagnosis as gardnerellosis in men, although this pathogen is able to penetrate into the male body, causing inflammation in the genitourinary system. In this case, the symptoms of Gardnerella will be similar to the manifestation of ureaplasmosis.

On the video, dermatovenerologist Sergey G. Lenkin talks about the disease in men:

For men with good immunity, this bacterium may not be dangerous, since it can live in the urethra without causing any pathology. Thus, an infected person will not even guess about its presence, while continuing to infect sexual partners. The result of the development of pathology can be ureaplasmosis.

Often, women who often recur bacterial vaginosis, can not fully cure it. In such cases, the doctor may suggest to examine their sexual partner. Gardnerella and ureaplasma are often detected in a smear of an infected person. In this case, both partners should be treated immediately.

Gardnerella in men can appear as a result of unprotected intercourse. Usually hitting the mucous membranes of the urethra, the infection disappears after a few days on its own. Stay here, they can only in case of a weakened immune defense.

The causes of the disease may be as follows:

  • Indiscriminate sex life, without the use of barrier methods of contraception.
  • Use condoms with spermicidal lubricant.
  • The presence of diseases that are sexually transmitted.

  • The use of antibacterial therapy in the treatment of other diseases, especially if the procedure for taking such drugs is violated.
  • Violation of hormonal background.
  • Taking antidepressants.
  • Neglect of personal hygiene.

The first manifestations of infection usually appear within a week after infection. Gardnerellosis in men occurs as a weak inflammatory process on the head of the penis. The patient himself may not even notice this, but if at this stage no treatment is started, then insignificant discharge may occur, which will have an unpleasant "fishy" smell. Additionally, pain and burning sensation will join. Due to the fact that ureaplasma itself manifests itself in the same way, diseases are often confused.

Signs of Gardnerella in men are:

  1. Uncharacteristic discharge from the urethra with an unpleasant odor.
  2. Rash on the penis.
  3. Darkening of the head of the penis.

After some time, even without treatment, these symptoms may disappear, although in some cases, the bacterium gardnerella can cause epididymitis, pyelonephritis or cystitis. There is also an opinion that it can be one of the factors for the development of prostatitis. Therefore, it is important to begin treatment as soon as a man notices her signs. How to treat Gardnerella can only tell the doctor, who according to the results of tests prescribe the appropriate medication. Usually, the treatment of Gardnerella in men goes through several stages.

Prevention

In order to protect themselves from Gardnerella infection, it is important for men to monitor their sexual relationships. Since this bacterium is conditionally pathogenic, a female carrier, like a man, may not even be aware of its presence in her body. Other preventive measures include:

  • Timely treatment of any infections, including those that are sexually transmitted.
  • Refusal of intimacy during critical days at the partner. Otherwise, you should use barrier contraceptives during this period.
  • Avoiding casual sex. If they happen, it is extremely important to use a condom. This will provide an opportunity to prevent infections not only of Gardnerella, but also of more dangerous diseases, including HIV.

  • For any unusual symptoms (appearance of discharge with an unpleasant smell, discomfort during urination or sexual intimacy), it is important to consult a doctor as soon as possible and undergo a comprehensive examination.
  • If a condom was not used during sex, then after it is finished, it is necessary to immediately flush the penis with miramistin.

Urologist Karaman Sergeevich Abramov will talk about intimate hygiene:

  • It is important to monitor your personal hygiene. It consists in regular water procedures and daily change of underwear.
  • 1-2 times a year, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination together with the sexual partner, including tests for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. This procedure is standard and allows you to identify dangerous diseases at the initial stage of their development, when they respond well to treatment and are not capable of causing complications.
  • Avoiding stressful situations and excessive physical exertion.
  • It is necessary to adhere to the principles of proper nutrition, with a sufficient amount of vitamins and trace elements in the diet.
  • It is necessary to give up bad habits or reduce them to a minimum, as well as to strengthen the immunity.

Despite the fact that gardnerella is considered to be conditionally pathogenic microorganism, infection with it can lead to serious consequences for the man’s body. Therefore, at the first signs of the disease, it is important to begin treatment. It is not recommended to do this yourself, as this may have negative consequences. Treat gardnerellosis should only doctor. In order to prevent infection, it is important for men to strengthen the immune system and avoid casual sex.

general information

According to experts, such a diagnosis as “male vaginosis” does not exist in nature. There is a so-called bacterial vaginosis - a violation of the state of the natural microflora of the vagina in the female body. With this disease, there is a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and an increase in the number of other bacteria. As an example, the medical literature most often cites Gardnerella vaginalis, from which the name of this ailment originated. However, its pathogens can also penetrate into the male body, causing an inflammatory process.

Taking into account the fact that the bacterium Gardnerella is unusual for the body of the stronger sex, if it is detected, it is considered a genital infection. On the other hand, gardnerellosis in men is not a venereal disease in its traditional sense.

It is noteworthy that for the first time this bacterium was described in 1955 by scientists Dukeson and Gardner. At the time, they called her a hemophilic vaginal wand. In 1980, new pathogenic properties of the microorganism were discovered, after which the bacterium was renamed (by the name of one of the researchers).

According to experts, Gardnerella is not dangerous for the body. It threatens health only when the body’s immune defense is reduced. Установлено следующее: если бактерия сумела проникнуть в мочеполовые каналы во время полового акта, практически со 100% вероятностью можно утверждать, что произойдет заражение. Именно после очередного интимного контакта и может быть диагностирован гарднереллез у мужчин.

  • Прием антидепрессантов.
  • Decrease in the body's immune defense (due to psycho-emotional / physical stress).
  • Previously postponed diseases of the genitourinary system.
  • Antibacterial therapy.

Main infection routes

Gardnerella is transmitted exclusively through sexual intercourse. In other ways, it is impossible to become infected, since neither the contact nor the ordinary household method can cause a disease.

Initially, it should be noted that obvious clinical signs do not always accompany gardnerellosis in men. The patient may not experience any discomfort and continue to lead a normal life.

The structure of the male urogenital system itself is such that the bacteria are usually excreted from the body in literally three days. However, under the influence of certain factors (weakened immunity, hypothermia, chronic diseases, etc.), gardnerella can penetrate directly into the urethra during unprotected sex. There, the pathogen grows and multiplies, as a result, an inflammatory process occurs. It is in this way that gardnerellosis develops in men. Symptoms, photo microscopic analyzes of smear, etc., can be further studied through specialized literature.

The most common infection of the body with this bacterium provokes the development of urethritis. Approximately five days after its penetration, the primary symptoms characteristic of the inflammatory process of the urethral mucosa occur. There are greenish discharge, men are haunted by a feeling of discomfort and burning during urination. It is these signs during a diagnostic examination by a specialist that allow to confirm gardnerellosis in men.

Symptoms, as noted earlier, may not appear at all. However, the man is still a carrier of the pathogen. That is why during the next sexual contact his companion is at risk of being infected.

Is treatment necessary?

Definitely. Even if this problem is asymptomatic, a man can infect his partner during the next sexual intercourse.

On the other hand, if a woman has been diagnosed with this disease, the man must necessarily undergo an examination, the results of which will be prescribed treatment for gardnerella disease. In men, thanks to the use of modern medical drugs, therapy lasts no more than three weeks.

What should be the treatment?

When the Gardnerella bacterium was first discovered, scientists announced it a new genital infection. Only after some time it was found that she could live peacefully in the body of an absolutely healthy lady. It was at that moment that the opinions of doctors all over the world on the issue of treatment radically diverged. Until now, some experts argue that the treatment of gardnerella in men is not mandatory. Others urge to examine both partners, and even without positive test results, it is imperative to prescribe therapy. According to the latter, only medical drugs can defeat gardnerellosis in men.

Treatment - drugs and their dosage - in each case determined by the doctor. Of course, most often both partners make a positive decision about treatment. Otherwise, the likelihood of complications is very high.

The first treatment of gardnerella in men involves the use of antibacterial drugs that have a common effect. All drugs are selected individually, according to the results of tests for the sensitivity of Gardnerell to some of their components. As a rule, the following drugs are prescribed: "Trihopol", "Levofloxacin", "Doxycycline", "Clindamycin". The course of treatment is 7-10 days.

Taking into account the fact that after taking antibiotics, many develop intestinal dysbiosis, pro-and prebiotics are also prescribed. These are medicaments consisting mainly of colonies of bacteria useful for the bowels and special substances that contribute to their normal functioning. Thus, this is another component of the treatment of such problems as gardnerellosis in men. Treatment - drugs and probiotics - not in each case prescribed by a doctor. If the patient has no complaints about the condition of the gastrointestinal tract, they are not used. If intestinal dysbacteriosis was diagnosed, then the following drugs are used for therapy: Bififor, Linex, Acipol, Lactobacterin.

As for restorative complexes, the most commonly recommended courses are herbal medicine and biostimulants. When significant violations in the immune system are assigned immunomodulators.

Today, many are wondering how to treat gardnerellosis in men without consequences. In fact, it is necessary to strictly follow all the attending physician and observe some restrictions. So, throughout the course, you should abandon the use of alcoholic beverages, as well as fatty and spicy foods. It is very important at the time of treatment to limit sex life. In addition, you should not arrange yourself sunbathing, as the skin due to medication become more sensitive and may be adversely affected by ultraviolet radiation.

Criteria for Gardnerella Cure

Monitoring of the results of treatment by the doctor is carried out seven days after the end of therapy based on a study of prostate secretion, ejaculate and urethral scraping by PCR.

It is important to note that there is no sustained immunity to this bacterium. Moreover, re-infection is possible literally the day after the final recovery.

Conclusion

At present, according to experts, the number of cases is steadily increasing. It is very important to know what constitutes Gardnerella in men. How to treat this infection and what are the main reasons for its occurrence, you can find out by reading this article. We hope that all the information provided will be really useful for you.

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